Research Article Open Access
Essential Oil Constituents of Boenninghausenia albiflora Reichb. (Rutaceae) from Gangolihat, (Distt-Pithoragarh) Uttarakhand, India.
Deepak Chandra1 and Kundan Prasad2*
1Department of Chemistry, K.S.K.G.I.C Maigari-Estate, Distt-Bageshwar, Uttrakhand.
2Department of Chemistry, G.I.C Garkha, Distt-Pithoragarh, Uttrakhand.
*Corresponding author: Kundan Prasad, Department of Chemistry, G.I.C Garkha, Distt-Pithoragarh, Uttrakhand. Tel: 9690766978; Email: @
Received: August 13, 2018; Accepted: September 04, 2018; Published: September 11, 2018
Citation: Prasad K, Deepak C (2018) Essential Oil Constituents of Boenninghausenia albiflora Reichb. (Rutaceae) from Gangolihat, (Distt-Pithoragarh) Uttarakhand, India. Int J Open Access Clin Trials 2(1): 1-5.
Abstract Top
Background and objective: Boenninghausenia albiflora belonging to the family Rutaceae and is well known for its medicinal properties in traditional system of medicine.

Methods: The plant Boenninghausenia albiflora Reichb including leaves, stem, and flowers were extracted by hydro distillation method for 6 hours using Clevenger apparatus. The hydro-distilled essential oil of Boenninghausenia albiflora Reichb has been examined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: A total of 54 components of the essential oil of Boenninghausenia albiflora Reichb. were identified, accounting for 97 % of the total oil. The main compounds found were cinnamyl propyl ether 22 %, linalool 22 %, (E)-cinnamaldehyde 15 %, (E) cinnamyl alcohol 5 %.

Keywords: Boenninghausenia albiflora; Essential oil; Gas Chromatography; Mass Spectrometry;
Introduction
Mother earth has gifted the humankind with lots of plants which has the ability for curing the health disorders of human being. These feature has been identified in the pre-historic times, and the world wide use of herbal therapies and health care preparations that are prescribed in ancient books like vedas and the bibles pave way for the discovering of natural products with medicinal values [1,2]. Traditional Indian medicines have been used for pharmaceutical and dietary therapy for several decades. During several periods, there is increasing interest to unlock the secrets of ancient herbal remedies. The increase in prevalence of multiple drug resistance has shown the development of new synthetic antibacterial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory drugs. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants showing antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have a potential of filling this need because their no side effects than synthetic drugs [3]. Boenninghausenia albiflora belonging to the family Rutaceae and is well known for its medicinal properties in traditional system of medicine. In ethnobotanical literature, the aerial as well as the root part has been described as an antiseptic. The plant leafs has been used to apply on cuts and wounds whereas root powder is being used as antiseptic [4]. Sometimes its juice is also being given in vomiting and dysentery. Some workers also reported this plant to have flea repellent, as well as calcium blocking activity [5,6].

Essential oils and their volatile constituents are used to prevent and treat human disease. The possible role and mode of action of these natural products is discussed with regard to the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and thrombosis, as well as their bioactivity as antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidants and antidiabetic agents. The pharmaceutical properties of aromatic plants are partially attributed to essential oils [7].
Experimental
Plant Material
The plant Boenninghausenia albiflora Reichb was collected in the month of September, 2017 from Gangolihat, 80 km away from Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand, India. The plant was authenticated by Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Dehradun. A voucher specimen (No.114837) was deposited in the Herbarium Section at BSI, Dehradun, India. (Figure 1).
Isolation of essential oil
The plant Boenninghausenia albiflora including leaves, stem, and flowers extracted by hydro-distillation method for 3 hours using Clevenger-apparatus (Figure 2, 3 & 4). The oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored at 4 °C temperature in a sealed vial until analysis was performed. The percentage oil yield was calculated based on the dry weight of the plant. The oil yield was (0.08%).
Figure 1: Identification of plant from B.S.I Dehradun.
Figure 2: Plant of Boenninghausenia albiflora.
Figure 3: Plant of Boenninghausenia albiflora Flower..
Figure 4: Plant of Boenninghausenia albiflora Flower.
GC and GC/MS Analyses and Identification
Essential oil analyses were performed by GC-MS and GC-FID on a Shimadzu QP-2010 instrument, equipped with FID, in the same conditions. The percentage composition of the oil sample was computed from the GC peak areas without using correction for response factors. The oil was analyzed using a Shimadzu GC/ MS Model QP 2010 Plus, equipped with a Rtx-5MS (30 m ×0.25 mm; 0.25 mm film thickness) fused silica capillary column. Helium (99.999 %) was used as a carrier gas adjusted to 1.21 ml/min at 69.0 K Pa, split less injection of 1 mL, of a hexane solution injector and interface temperature were 270 °C, oven temperature programmed was 50–280 °C at 3 °C/min. Mass spectra were recorded at 70 eV. Ion source temperature was 230 °C.

The identification of the chemical constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their retention indices and mass spectra with those given in the literature. Retention indices (RI) were determined with reference to a homologous series of normal alkanes, by using the following formula [7,8].
KI = 100[n+(N - n)× logt R 1 (unknown) - logt R 1 (C n ) logt R 1 (C N ) - logt R 1 (C n ) ] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagGart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaae4saiaabM eacaqGGaGaaeypaiaabccacaqGXaGaaeimaiaabcdacaqGBbGaaeOB aiaabUcacaqGOaGaaeOtaiaabccacaqGTaGaaeiiaiaab6gacaqGPa Gaae41amaalaaabaGaaeiBaiaab+gacaqGNbGaaeiDamaaDaaaleaa caqGsbaabaGaaeymaaaakiaabIcacaqG1bGaaeOBaiaabUgacaqGUb Gaae4BaiaabEhacaqGUbGaaeykaiaabccacaqGTaGaaeiiaiaabYga caqGVbGaae4zaiaabshadaqhaaWcbaGaaeOuaaqaaiaabgdaaaGcca qGOaGaae4qamaaBaaaleaacaqGUbaabeaakiaabMcaaeaacaqGSbGa ae4BaiaabEgacaqG0bWaa0baaSqaaiaabkfaaeaacaqGXaaaaOGaae ikaiaaboeadaWgaaWcbaGaaeOtaaqabaGccaqGPaGaaeiiaiaab2ca caqGGaGaaeiBaiaab+gacaqGNbGaaeiDamaaDaaaleaacaqGsbaaba GaaeymaaaakiaabIcacaqGdbWaaSbaaSqaaiaab6gaaeqaaOGaaeyk aaaacaqGDbaaaa@7121@
t1R – the net retention time (tR – t0)
t0 – the retention time of solvent (dead time)
tR – the retention time of the compound.
CN – Number of Carbons in longer chain of alkane
Cn– number of Carbons in shorter chain of alkane
n - Is the number of carbon atoms in the smaller alkane
N - Is the Number of carbon atoms in the larger alkane
Results and Discussion
The GC and GC-MS analysis of leaf oil of Boenninghausenia albiflora resulted in the identification of 54 constituents. The compounds, together with their retention index and relative percentage concentration are presented in table 1. The 0.10% v/w of pale yellow colour oil of Boenninghausenia albiflora was extracted by steam distillation methods. The main compounds found were cinnamyl propyl ether 22.61 %, linalool 22.56%, (E)-cinnamaldehyde 15.06 %, (E) cinnamyl alcohol 5.65 %. The monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons found in the oil as major components while diterpenes were minor components.
Table 1: Essential oil composition of Boenninghausenia albiflora Reichb

S.N.

Compound

Area %

Mol. formula

RI

Mode of identification

1.

α-Thujene

0.10

C10H16

927

a,b

2.

α-Pinene

2.24

C10H16

936

a,b

3.

Benzaldehyde

3.02

C7H6O

946

a,b

4.

Camphene

1.35

C10H16

953

a,b

5.

β-Pinene

1.10

C10H16

978

a,b

6.

1-Propylcyclopentanol

0.08

C8H16O

1010

a,b

7.

δ-3-Carene

0.12

C10H16

1012

a,b

8.

p-Cymene

2.12

C10H14

1015

a,b

9.

Limonene

0.54

C10H16

1030

a,b

10.

Salicylaldehyde

0.16

C7H6 O2

1044

a,b

11.

4-Methyl-4-vinylbutyrolactone

0.13

C7H10 O2

1050

a,b

12.

Cineole

0.81

C10H18O

1058

a,b

13.

Acetophenone

0.11

C8H8O

1068

a,b

14.

cis-Linalool oxide

3.74

C10H18O2

1069

a,b

15.

Trans-Linalool Oxide

3.62

C10H18O2

1075

a,b

16.

β-Linalool

22.56

C10H18O

1082

a,b

17.

α-Campholenal

0.10

C10H16O

1125

a,b

18.

Nopinone

0.15

C9H14O

1138

a,b

19.

t-Pinocarveol

0.18

C10H16O

1140

a,b

20.

t-Verbenol

0.05

C10H16O

1145

a,b

21.

Linderol

0.44

C10H18O

1149

a,b

22.

Hydrocinnamaldehyde

0.45

C9H10O

1165

a,b

23.

pyranoid

0.93

C10H18O2

1170

a,b

24.

α-Terpineol

0.36

C10H18O

1176

a,b

25.

3,7-Dimethyloct-1,5-dien-3,7-diol

0.56

C10H18O2

1192

a,b

26.

(Z)-Cinnamaldehyde

0.17

C9H8O

1218

a,b

27.

Bornyl formate

0.07

C11H18O2

1275

a,b

28.

(E)-cinnamaldehyde

15.06

C9H8O

1280

a,b

29.

Bornyl acetate

1.31

C12H20O2

1285

a,b

30.

(E)-Cinnamyl alcohol

5.65

C9H10O

1308

a,b

31.

cis-2,3-Pinanediol

0.33

C10H18O2

1321

a,b

32.

ethyl-Hydrocinnamate

0.24

C11H14O2

1351

a,b

33.

Cinnamyl formate

0.39

C10H10O2

1352

a,b

34.

cis-Cinnamic acid

0.44

C9H8O2

1357

a,b

35.

α-Copaene

0.36

C15H24

1375

a,b

36.

Hydrocinnamyl acetate

0.77

C11H14O2

1377

a,b

37.

Cinnamyl propyl ether

22.61

C12H16O

1380

a,b

38.

(Z)-ethyl-Cinnamate

0.30

C11H12O2

1381

a,b

39.

Isopropyl 3-phenylpropanoate

0.17

C12H16O2

1390

a,b

40.

α- Amorphene

0.19

C15H24

1477

a,b

41.

β-selinene

0.26

C15H24

1486

a,b

42.

Guaia-1(10),11-diene

0.10

C15H24

1490

a,b

43.

α-Muurolene

0.08

C15H24

1497

a,b

44.

γ-Cadinene

0.07

C15H24

1512

a,b

45.

Trans-Calamenene

0.07

C15H22

1527

a,b

46.

Spathulenol

0.09

C15H24O

1536

a,b

47.

Caryophyllene oxide

1.59

C15H24O

1580

a,b

48.

Humulene epoxide II

0.23

C15H24O

1610

a,b

49.

Caryophylla-4(12),8(13)-dien-5-alpha-ol

0.30

C15H2O

1642

a,b

50.

Cadin-4-en-10-ol

0.07

C15H26O

1659

a,b

51.

α- Costol

0.28

C15H24O

1770

a,b

52.

Kaur-16-ene

0.75

C20H32

2030

a,b

53.

Linalyl cinnamate

0.06

C19H24O2

2115

a,b

54.

9-Dodecynyl 3-phenylpropanoate

0.14

C21H30O2

2370

a,b

 

 

97.17

 

 

 

a=Retention Index (RI), b=MS (GC-MS).
Essential oils are valuable natural products, which are used as raw materials in many fields including perfumes, cosmetics, aromatherapy, phytotherapy, spices and nutrition [9]. Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of fragrances or at least mere volatiles to cure diseases, infections and indispositions by means of inhalation [10]. This has recently attracted the attention of many scientists and encouraged them to screen plants to study the biological activities of their oils from chemical and pharmacological investigations to therapeutic aspects. Hopefully, this will lead to new information on plant applications and new perspective on the potential use of these natural products (Figure 5).
Figure 5: GC-graph of Boenninghausenia albiflora leaf essential oil.
Conclusions
The essential oil from Boenninghausenia albiflora showed a qualitative and quantitative make-up of constituents. Clinically, this plants can be used good source of herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases indigenously. The study will also help to generate a database of species which can be exploited scientifically and judiciously in the future by local people and so that ecological balance is maintained. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the essential oil of Boenninghausenia albiflora Reichb possesses medicinally active compounds.
Acknowledgement
The authors are grateful to AIRF, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi for the Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis facilities.
Author Contributions
The first author, Dr Deepak Chandra, carried out all the experimental work and prepared the manuscript. Dr Kundan Prasad, the second author, designed all the experiments, analyzed the data and prepared the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript.

• GC-MS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
• GC-FID Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector.
• RI: Retention Index.
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