Research article Open Access
Pharmaceutical Dispensing and Wasting In Health Care Facilities, Amounts, Costs and Evaluation of Potential Ecologic Effects
Russell F Mankes1,2,3* and Charles D Silver4
1 Associate Professor (Retired), Center for Neuropharmacology & Neuroscience; Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue Albany NY 12208, USA
2 Associate Professor & Responsible Official (Retired), Center for Immunology & Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue Albany NY 12208, USA
3Chemical Hygiene Officer (Retired), Department of Environmental Health & Safety (MC-96) Albany Medical Center 43 New Scotland Avenue Albany NY 12208, USA
4 New York City Watershed Inspector General Scientist, New York State Office of the Attorney General, Environmental Protection Bureau, The Capitol, Albany, NY 12224-0341, USA
*Corresponding author: Russell F Mankes, 141 Mohawk Drive, Schenectady, NY 12303, USA, E-mail: RMANKES@NYCAP.RR.COM; @
The Office of the New York State Attorney General does not endorse the views expressed in this article. All opinions represent those of Charles D. Silver and not the Attorney General’s Office.
Received: July 20, 2017; Accepted: August 27, 2017; Published: September 6, 2017
Citation: Russell F Mankes, Charles D Silver (2017) Pharmaceutical Dispensing and Wasting In Health Care Facilities, Amounts, Costs and Evaluation of Potential Ecologic Effects. SOJ Pharm Pharm Sci. 4(4), 1-32. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15226/2374-6866/4/4/00167
Abstract
Drug waste from hospitals contributes to environmental contamination. Patient excreta, bathing or discarding of excess drugs are some sources of drug waste. We report on the wasting of 84 drugs of 14 therapeutic classes in two hospitals in Albany, NY. We consider drug metabolism, excretion, disposal and ecotoxicity in strategies for reducing drug waste, costs and potential environmental damage.

Medication (12,345) and waste collection (199) records for: drugs dispensed, returned and wasted were examined. Of 2,700 drugs available, 84 drugs from 14 classes, weighing 56 kg were dispensed to patients, and 2.3 kg were wasted. Twelve drugs accounted for 80 percent of the drug waste and cost $111,000. Of the top wasted and dispensed drugs, all but ibuprofen are persistant and none were bioaccumulative. Ibuprofen, ipratropium ondansetron and oxymetazoline are ”very highly toxic” or ”highly toxic”. Environmental Risk Ratio (PEC/PNEC) for the 20 top drugs were”Insignificant” or ”Cannot Be Excluded”.

Acetazolamide is the most toxic to fish. Dexamethasone has the greatest chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia. Ibuprofen is predicted to be very highly toxic (acute and chronic) to zebra mussel, crab and fish. Neostigmine is the most acutely toxic (LC50< 1 mg/L) to Daphnia. Ondansetron is the most acutely toxic to green algae. All but 2 of the drugs were 5 to 100% excreted. Fourteen were metabolised. Active metabolites were formed from 2 drugs. Nicardipine, ondansetron and prednisone formed drug conjugates which were excreted. Incineration was the manufacturer’s recommended disposal method.

We recommend excess drugs be returned to the hospital pharmacy for disposal by incineration. Drug use and disposal should be monitored by an expert committee according to recognized guidelines of pharmaceutical management. Knowledge of the adverse impacts from the release of highly toxic drugs into the environment must influence drug selection and disposal.

Key words: Waste; Ecotoxicity; Wastewater;
Abbreviations
AMCH = Academic Medical Center Hospital; ASTER = Assessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk. United States Environmental Protection Agency
https://archive.epa.gov/med/med_archive_03/web/html/aster.html Last accessed 6/4/17; B = Bioaccumulation is the general term describing a process by which chemicals are taken up by an organism either directly from exposure to a contaminated medium or by consumption of food containing the chemical; EC50 = Effective Concentration producing an adverse effect in 50% of a test species; EbC50 or ErC50 = EC50 in terms of reduction of growth rate; EyC50 = EC50 in terms of change in biomass yield; Ecosar = Ecologic Structure Activity Relationships is a computerized predictive system that estimates aquatic toxicity. The program estimates a chemical’s acute (short-term) toxicity and chronic (long-term or delayed) toxicity to aquatic organisms such as fish, invertebrates, and plants by using computerized Structure Activity Relationships
(SARs). https://www.epa.gov/tsca-screening-tools/ecological-structure-activity-relationships-ecosar-predictive-model. Last accessed 6/4/17; EPA = United States Environmental Protection Agency; FDA = United States Food and Drug Administration; IC 50= Half maximal inhibitory concentration is a measure of the effectiveness of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function; LC50 = Lethal Concentration producing 50% mortality in test species; MIC = Minimum Inhibitory Concentration is the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial that will inhibit the visible growth of a microorganism after overnight incubation; MSDS = Material Safety Data Sheet. Since 2009, known as SDS or Safety Data Sheet; Neutral Organics QSAR = Subset of chemicals within Ecosar Suite; OECD = Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; P = Persistence is the length of time a substance resides in the environment; PBT = Persistence, Bioaccumulation, Toxicity index; PEC = Predicted Environmental Concentration; PNEC = Predicted No Effect Concentration, highest concentration of a substance that does not have a harmful effect in the environment; PNN = Probabilistic Neural Network modeling; QSAR = Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship; REACH = Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals legislation of the European Union; SAR = Structure Activity Relationship; SCC = Surgical Care Center; STP = Sewage Treatment Plant; T or iT = Toxicity or Inherent Toxicity is the hazard a substance presents to the environment or human health;
Highlights
1. This extends our reports on drug waste practices at two hospitals in Albany, NY.
2. 84 drugs from 14 therapeutic classes weighing 56 kg were dispensed to patients.
3. Twelve drugs accounted for 80 percent of the drug waste (2.3 kg) and cost an estimated $111,000.
4. Of the drugs, all but ibuprofen are persistent and none are bioaccumulative.
5. Four drugs are toxic (EC50 or LC50< 1.0 mg/L) to invertebrates, two (acetazolamide, ibuprofen) to fish and two to green algae (ondansetron) or duckweed (ibuprofen).
6. Drug waste should be returned to the pharmacy or reverse distributors for incineration.
Introduction
Pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP) waste is an emerging environmental concern. Low levels of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, endocrine disruptors, psychotropics and mood altering drugs and X-ray contrast media have been detected in surface waters, soils, wastewaters and in drinking water sources of major cities, both within the USA and worldwide [1-4]. Recent reviews have described the occurrence and possible effects of drug residues in tissues of aquatic organisms and wildlife [5-7]. Pharmaceuticals are introduced into the aquatic environment from a variety of sources, such as: hospitals [2, 8-12]; wastewater treatment plants [13-16]; drug manufacturers [17-19]; livestock farms [20-22]; and veterinary facilities [23, 24].

Hospitals and patient care facilities are major dispensers of pharmaceuticals [12, 25] with a number of studies and reviews evaluating hospital drug dispensing patterns and estimations of sewage outflow concentrations [12]. These have led to conflicting conclusions as to the magnitude of this pollution discharge relative to other non-hospital based activities. Disposal of drugs by hospitals and healthcare facilities into the environment by flushing is a concern [26, 27] and this practice needs to be reconsidered or discontinued [20, 28-29]. For the general public and other unregistered end users of prescription medications, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided guidelines for disposal of excess medications. These guidelines do not apply to hospitals, pharmacies and other facilities registered with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) or State regulatory authorities (for a review of the legal complexities refer to Yeh [31]). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a change to hazardous waste regulations which ban the flushing of hazardous waste pharmaceuticals and discourages the flushing of non-regulated drugs.

In addition to direct disposal of excess pharmaceuticals (e.g., discarding or wasting), up to 100% of some drugs are directly excreted by patients [32]. Others may undergo significant metabolism to inactive compounds or to other active drugs prior to excretion [33-35]. Some drugs undergo conjugation in the body to enhance water solubility [36-38]. These conjugates may be recirculated either within the body (enterohepatic recirculation) or outside the body where the conjugates are cleaved by bacteria to reconstitute the active drug [34, 39]. Bathing and laundry effluents have also been proposed as pathways for the introduction of pharmaceuticals into the environment [40-42].

Investigations to assess whether drugs in drinking water adversely impact human health are continuing [43-45]. Direct relationships between the low levels of pharmaceuticals identified in drinking water and adverse impacts to human health are not being observed at this time [46, 47]. However, numerous laboratory studies [48-56] and literature reviews [57-59] have demonstrated the negative impacts of drugs to aquatic organisms.

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are not designed to remove most pharmaceuticals [60-62] and biodegradability tests have shown that many drugs are not totally removed during sewage treatment [63]. As a result, many pharmaceuticals remain in raw sewage or are only partially removed [61, 64-65]. Pharmaceuticals released from STPs flow into receiving waters, such as streams and rivers [20, 61, 66]. Studies conducted on water quality in various countries have detected a number of antibiotics (Ab) in the low μg/L or parts per billion ranges. For example in Korea, over 95% of the Ab in the influent to a livestock wastewater treatment plant was present in the effluent [67]. Laboratory analysis of water samples collected at the influent and effluent of STPs confirms that they are a primary source of pharmaceuticals, which originate from disposal or excretion [15, 68-70].

In prior publications [71-73] the patterns of wasting and potential environmental effects of propofol and other surgical drugs (e.g., lidocaine, succinylcholine, bupivacaine, ephedrine, epinephrine, atracurium, proparacaine and atropine) were reported from a surgical care center in Albany, NY. Of interest was how a small change in availability (e.g., removal of 50 and 100 mL vials of propofol from automated dispensing machines in the operating rooms) reduced propofol wastage from 29.2 to 2.8 mL for each waste receptacle per day [71]. In a second communication [72], wasting of 15 controlled substance from two hospitals in Albany, New York was evaluated over a two year period. Three controlled substances (midazolam, acetaminophen-codeine and fentanyl) contributed nearly 90% by weight of the total controlled drug waste. The third publication [73] reported the patterns of antibiotic/antimicrobial drug wasting. The present study reports on the patterns of wasting and dispensing of an additional 85 pharmaceuticals in 12 pharmacologic classes given to patients at two acute care hospitals in Albany, NY. The study considered drug metabolism, excretion, disposal and toxicity to aquatic organisms (ecotoxicity). Potential strategies for drug waste minimization and possible impacts on healthcare costs are discussed.
Materials and Methods
As part of a pharmaceutical waste reduction pilot program, a total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed from two hospitals in Albany, NY. There were 4,889 automated drug dispensing machine (PYXIS®) records which were collected and tabulated at the Albany Medical Center Hospital (AMCH; 630-bed, acute care) and 7,257 PYXIS® records from the South Clinical Campus (SCC; 20 bed surgical care center). Additionally, the contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and their contents tabulated.

Data were recorded by location, medication form, weight and number of units dispensed, returned, “bedside wasted” or discarded (e.g., a 1g dose of phenylephrine was recorded as 1g regardless of the total weight of the drug formulation.). No human subject or patient identifier information was accessed; all data were recorded as summary aggregates. The funding agency (US EPA) did not participate in the design, conduct, or analysis of the study. All numeric data were entered and archived on a Windows® based personal computer and analyzed by standard software packages (Microsoft Access®, Excel®).

N.b., Bedside wasted at health care facilities refers to the discharge of excess drug withdrawn for patient administration, but only partially given to a patient. The leftover medication is then discarded by a healthcare professional who documents the wasting in the medication record.

Persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity (PBT), environmental risk ratio (http://www.janusinfo.se), and ecotoxicity (http://www.msdsonline.com) were summarized for each drug wasted or discarded and displayed in Table 1 and Supplemental Table 1.

Table 1 (and Supplemental Table 1) provides a summary of ecotoxicity information for the pharmaceuticals of interest. Inhibitory and lethal concentration data were considered to be the same for our review (e.g., EC50 = IC 50= LC50). These values (EC50, IC 50, and LC50) were selected as they represent the most reproducible point on the dose-response curve.

In addition to the laboratory derived toxicity information presented in the MSDS/SDS (Material Safety Data Sheet/Safety Data Sheet) and outside literature, mathematically modeled values are provided in Table 1 (and Supplemental Table 1): Aster (http://www.epa.gov/med/prods_pubs/aster.htm ), ECOSAR (Ecological Structure Activity Relationships – http://www.epa.gov/oppt/newchems/tools/21ecosar.htm ), Neutral Organics QSAR(Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship), Oasis Forecast M, PNN, and Topkat. Data from the WikiPharma database (http://www.wikipharma.org) is also summarized in Tables 1 and Supplementary Table 1 where appropriate.

Pharmacokinetic data (metabolism, conjugation and excretion) are summarized in Table 2 (and Supplemental Table 2) from official government drug monographs and labels (Drugs@FDA; http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index.cfm) and the Hazardous Substances Data Bank, United States National Library of Medicine TOXNET Toxicology Data Network (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB).

For those drugs for which no data (designated as ND) were found for PBT, environmental risk ratio, ecotoxicity or pharmacokinetics, a computerized search of the available primary literature was conducted (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) and referenced in footnotes to Tables 1 and 2 (and Supplemental Tables 1 and 2).
Results
Formulary Overview
As part of our evaluation of drug dispensing and disposal, the formulary for the academic medical center hospital and surgical care center was evaluated by a commercial contractor. As depicted in the pie chart (Figure 1), of 2,700 drug formulations (represented by unique National Drug Codes – NDCs), most (90%) are not regulated but include such major therapeutic drug classes as: endocrine disruptors, steroids, antibiotics, mood altering drugs, heart and blood pressure medications, antiinflammatory drugs, and cholesterol lowering drugs as well as innocuolus salts, buffers, nutritionals and emmolients. The remaining drug formulations possess one or more hazardous or regulated
Figure 1: Formulary Pie Chart Based on 2,700 Drug Formulations (NDC’s)
characteristics. Controlled substances are the more numerous at 4.8% of the drugs; followed closely by those whose wastes are regulated by the US EPA (so called ”RCRA” – Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or hazardous chemicals; e.g., flammable, corrosive, reactive, mercury containing, etc.) at 4.4%; cytotoxic and antimetabolite drugs (used in treating cancer patients) regulated by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) or the National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) comprise 3.2%; vaccines and biologicals (biohazardous, infectious or recombinant DNA) at 2.7%; and aerosols (inhalers, pressurized dispensers) regulated by the US Department of Transportation (US DOT) at but 0.3% of the hospital’s formulary. Please note that the total exceeds 100% as a number of drug formulations have multiple hazard characteristics, e.g. a RCRA hazardous waste and a controlled substance – (paraldehyde, chloral hydrate), a RCRA hazardous waste and a cytotoxic (cyclophosphamide, actinomycin), a RCRA hazardous waste and biohazardous infectious drug (vaccines with preservatives), etc. The current communication focuses upon unregulated drugs and those few pharmaceuticals which meet the criteria for regulation under current state and federal hazardous waste laws (”RCRA”). As noted in figure 1, these comprise nearly 90% of the ”On Formulary” NDC’s (Not Currently Regulated) and about 4.4% of the ”On Formulary” NDC’s (RCRA regulated).
Table 1: Summary of the Most Frequently Wasted, Discarded or Dispensed Pharmaceuticals and Potential Ecotoxic Effects from an Academic Medical Center and a Surgical Care Center over a Two

Pharmaceutical – DrugClassa                                                                                                             Ecotoxicityb

Generic Name
CASc #
Traded name®

Classa

PBTe Score

Riskf

Invertebrates

Fish

Other

Disposalg

Acetazolamide
59-66-5
Diamox ®

Ophtho

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature: NDh
Predicted: Daphniai or mysid shrimp EC50j or LC50k>1000 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); Daphnia chronic EC50>100 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS: ND
Literature: CyprinodonlLC83 10E-3M 120h [114]
Predicted: Fish LC50>1000 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); fish LC50>1000 mg/L(Aster); fish LC50 59mg/L (PNN); fish LC50>100 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50>1000 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); algae chronic EC50>100 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

ND

Albuterol
51022-70-9
Proventil ®

Pulmonary

4 (3,0,1)

Cannot be excluded

MSDS: DaphniaLC50>100 mg/L 48h.; LC50 243 mg/L 48h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Albuterol and Ipratropium
66985-17-9 and 51022-70-9
Combivent®

Pulmonary

Albuterol
4(3,0,1);
Iprat-ropium  6 (3,0,3 )

Albuterol: cannot be excluded.  Ipratropium: Insignificant

Albuterol
MSDS: Daphnia LC50>100 mg/L 48h.; LC50 243 mg/L 48h
Literature; Predicted: ND
Ipratropium
MSDS: Daphnia EC50>100 mg/L 48h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Predicted; Literature: ND

MSDS; Predicted; Literature: ND

ND

Dexamethasone
50-02-2
Decadron

ED

ND (ND,0,ND)

Cannot be excluded

MSDS: Daphnia EC50 48 mg/L 24h.
Literature, Predicted: ND
WikiPharma:Brachionusm LC50 48 mg/L 24h; Ceriodaphnian EC50 0.05ppm (or mg/L) 7d; Daphnia 48 mg/L 24h; Thamnocephaluso LC50 60 mg/L 24h.

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Pseudokirchneriellap EC50>100 mg/L 72h. Bioaccumulation unlikely; Harmful to aquatic organisms.
Literature; Predicted: ND

Do not release material and cleaning waters into the environment.   Incineration in accordance with laws.

Diatrizoatemeglumine
131-49-7
Gastrografin®

Radiology

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Gadodiamide
131410-48-5
Omniscan ®

Radiology

3 (3,0,0)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Glycopyrrolate
596-51-0
Rubinol®

Ophtho

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Ibuprofen
15687-27-1
Advil®

NSAID

2 (0,0,2)

Insignificant

MSDS: ND
Literature: Daphnia EC50 132.6 mg/L 48h  [104] EC50 31 mg/L 48h [105]; EC50 108 mg/L 48h [51] ; EC50 7.87 mg/L 21d [103]
Predicted: Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 2.6 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); Daphnia chronic EC50 4.3 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).
WikiPharma:
Carcinus EC500.0007 mg/L 28d; Daphnia EC50 9.1 mg/L 48h; >100 mg/L 48h; LC50>100 mg/L 48h;Dreissenav EC50 0.4 mg/L; Hydraw EC50 1.7mg/L 96h ; 3.9 mg/L 96h; IC 503.9 mg/L 96h; LC50 22 mg/L 96h; PlanorbisxLC50 17 mg/L 48h.

MSDS: ND
Literature: OryziasqLC50 89 mg/L 96h [105].
Predicted: CyprinodonLC50 49 mg/L (Topkat v6.1); fish LC50 2.6 mg/L; 32 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); 4.2 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); 5.3 mg/L (Aster); 8.2 mg/L (PNN); 0.0318 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR in Ecosar v0.99g).
WikiPharma:
Lepomisu LC50>100 mg/L 96h.

MSDS: ND
Literature: Pseudokirchneriella EC50 360 mg/L 96h [105]; DesmodesmusrEC50 315 mg/L 3d; LemnasEC50 22 mg/L 7d (Cleuvers 2003)
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 2.6 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); algae chronic EC50 4.3 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).


WikiPharma:
Desmodesmus EC50>100 mg/L 3d; Lemna EC50 1.0; 4.0; 19 and 22 mg/L7d; Pseudokirchneriella EC50 2.3 mg/L 96h Skeletonemat EC50 40 mg/L 5d; Vibrioy EC50 11, 12 and 19 mg/L 15min; Xenopusz EC50 40 mg/L 96h; LC50 57 mg/L 96h.

ND

Insulin
160337-95-1
Lantus®

ED
RCRA

ND

ND

MSDS: Daphnia EC50>100 mg/L 48h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Algae EC50 19 mg/L96h; 33 mg/L 72h; activated sludge EC50>1000  mg/L96h
Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Iopamidol
60166-93-0
Isovue®

Radiology

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Must not be disposed of together with household garbage. Do not allow product to reach sewage system.

Ketorolac
74103-07-4
Toradol®

NSAID

4 (3,0,1)

Insignificant

MSDS: Daphnia LC50>1000 mg/L 48h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Lepomis LC50>1000 mg/L 96h; Oncorhynchusaa LC50>1000 mg/L 24h; (fingerling) LC50>1000 mg/L 24 h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Chlorellabb EC50>1000 mg/L.
Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Mepivacaine
1722-62-9
Polocaine®

LA

4 (3,0,1)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 5.3 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish LC5072 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); >100 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); 75 mg/L (Aster); 23 mg/L (PNN); 1.99 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR); EC50 or LC50 5.3 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 5.3 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

ND

Metoprolol
83-43-2
Lopressor®,

CVS

4 (3,0,1)

Insignificant

MSDS: Daphnia EC50>100 mg/L 48 h
Literature: Daphnia LC50 76.2 mg/L 48h [115]; EC50 200 mg/L 48h [116]; EC50>100 mg/L 48h [51]; LC50 63.9 mg/L 48h; EC50 2.6 mg/L 24 and 48h [117]; HyalellaccLC50>100 mg/L 48h; 8.8 mg/L 48h [53]; Ceriodaphnia EC50 45.3 mg/L 48h [118].
Predicted: ND.
WikiPharma:
DaphniaEC50  >100 mg/L 48h; Daphnia LC50 64 mg/L; 76 mg/L 48h; Ceriodaphnia LC50 8.8 mg/L 48h; Hyalella LC50>100mg/L 48h; Thamnocephalus EC50>100 mg/L 1h; LC50 78 mg/L 24h.

MSDS: OnchorhynchusLC50>100 mg/L 96h
Literature: Oryzias LC50>100 mg/L 48h (Huggett et al. 2002)

 

 


Predicted: ND.
WikiPharma:
Daniodd LC50>100 mg/L 72h; EC50 31 mg/L 72h; OryziasLC50>100 mg/L 48h.

MSDS: Green algae ErC50 58.3 mg/L 72h
Literature:Desmodesmus EC50 7.3 mg/L 3d; Lemna EC50>320 mg/L 7d [51] ;Vibrio EC50 14.5 mg/L [117].

 

 

      Predicted:ND.
WikiPharma:
Desmodesmus EC50 40 mg/L 24h; 7.9 mg/L 48h; 7.3 mg/L 3d; Lemna EC50>100 mg/L 7d;Vibrio EC50>100 mg/L 30min.

ND

Neostigmine
59-99-4
Prostigmin®

Ophtho

ND

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS: Daphnia EC50  <1 mg/L 24 h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Not easily biodegradable. Harmful for water organisms.
Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Nicardipine
54527-84-3 / 55985-32-5
Cardene IV®

CVS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Nitroglycerine
55-63-0
Nitrostat®

CVS

ND

ND

MSDS: Daphnia EC50 46 mg/L 48h.
Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia EC50 1.56 E-05 mg/L (Topkat v6.1);
Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50>100 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); Daphnia chronic EC50 21 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS: Freshwater fish: LC50 1.4 mg/L 96h
Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish LC50>100 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); fish LC50>100 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); fish LC50>1000 mg/L (Aster); fish LC50>1000 mg/L (PNN); fish LC50 4.86 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR); fish, Daphnia, algae or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50>100 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS: ND
Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50>100 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); algae chronic EC50 21 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

ND

Ondansetron
99614-02-5
ZOFRAN®

GI

6 (3,0,3)

Insignificant

MSDS: DaphniaEC50 28 mg/L 48h
Literature; Predicted: ND.

MSDS: Adult Oncorhyncus EC50 6.5 mg/L 96h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Activated sludge respiration IC 50: >1000 mg/L 3h: Pseudokirchneriella IC50ee: 0.87 mg/L 72h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Oxymetazoline
2315-02-8
Afrin®

NS

5 (3,0,2)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS: Daphnia EC50 21 mg/L 48h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Fish LC50>100 mg/L 96h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Algae IC5024 mg/L 72h. Harmful to aquatic organisms and may cause long term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Phenylephrine
61-76-7
Neo-Synephrine®

CVS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Toxicity to Daphnia or mysid shrimp (EC50 or LC50) 58 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: fish LC50>100 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); Aster; PNN; Neutral Organics QSAR); fish EC50 or LC5058 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC5058 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

Prednisone
53-03-2 Deltasone®

ED

ND

Cannot be excluded

MSDS; Literature, Predicted: ND
WikiPharma:
Ceriodaphnia IC 50>2.0 mg/L 7d; Brachionus LC50 55 mg/L 24h.

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Algae IC 50: 31 mg/L 72h. Harmful to aquatic organisms
Literature, Predicted: ND
WikiPharma:
Pseudokirchneriella IC 5031 mg/L 72h.

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed; 4,889 records from the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records from the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded. Weights are for active ingredient, e.g. a 1 g dose of acetazolamide was recorded as 1 g regardless of the total weight of the drug formulation.
N.b. MSDS = Material Safety Data Sheet (Safety Data Sheet –Global Harmonization).WikiPharma =WikiPharma database (http://www/WikiPharma.org) is a compilation of publicly available ecotoxicity data for human pharmaceuticals available in Sweden.
a. Class – pharmaceutical is used to treat disease (e.g., Optho = eye; Pulmonary – lung function; Psy = mood altering; CVS = cardiovascular; CNS = central nervous system; ED = endocrine; Mus = musculo-skeletal; NS – nervous system, GI – gastrointestinal; Renal – kidney; Radiology – imaging, LA = local anesthetic).
b. Ecotoxicity: from material safety data sheets (MSDSs).
c. CAS# - Chemical Abstracts Services unique chemical identification number.
d. A trade name is included for illustrative purposes.
e. PBT : persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (0 – 3 range for each, with zero being the most benign).
f. Risk: defined as - cannot be excluded, insignificant, low, moderate, and high
g. Disposal – from MSDSs - n.b., does not apply to consumers or end users – refer to US FDA guidelines and office of national drug control policy (ONDCP, 2007).
h. ND = no data available or not determined.
i. Daphnia: crustacean, water flea.
j. EC50: concentration of a material which is expected to cause an adverse biological effect on 50% of the test organisms – acute toxicity.
k. LC50: lethal concentration that kills 50% of the test organisms – acute toxicity.
l. Cyprinodon: minnow, fish.
m. Brachionus: rotifer, invertebrate plankton.
n. Ceriodaphnia: waterflea, invertebrate.
o. Thamnocephalus: shrimp.
p. Pseudokirchneriella (AKA: Synechococcus):unicellular cyanobacteria.
q. Oryzias: ricefish.
r. Desmodesmus: green algae.
s. Lemna: duckweed.
t. Skeletonema: diatom.
u. Carcinus: crab.
v. Dreissena: freshwater mussel.
w. Hydra: freshwater invertebrate.
x. Planorbus: Freshwater snail.
y. Vibrio: gram negative bacteria.
z. Xenopus: clawed frog.
aa. Oncorhynchus: rainbow trout, fish
bb. Chlorella: green algae.
cc. Hyalella: amphipod invertebrate.
dd. Danio: zebrafish, fish.
ee. IC 50: concentration of a material in water which is expected to cause an inhibitory effect on 50% of the test organisms – acute toxicity.
Supplementary Table 1: Summary of Wasted, Discarded or Dispensed Pharmaceuticals and Potential Ecotoxic Effects from an Academic Medical Center and a Surgical Care Center over a Two-Year Period in Albany NY [115,116,119-128]

Pharmaceutical – Drug Classa   Ecotoxicityb

Generic Name
CAS c#
Trade name®

Class

PB
Scored

Riske

Invertebrates

Fish

Other

Disposalf

Acetylcholine
60-31-1
Miochol ®

Ophtho

NDg

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Do not dispose in ground water or sewage systems.

Adenosine
58-61-7
Adenocard IV®

CVS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:Daphniahor mysid shrimp EC50i or LC50j 300 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish LC50 10718 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g);78 mg/l (PNN); 2.98E+003 mg/L(Neutral Organics QSAR); EC50 or LC50 300 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 300 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

ND

Alprazolam
28981-97-7
Xanax ®

Psy

ND

Cannot be excluded

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 0.5 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish EC50 or LC50 fish 0.5 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); fish LC50 5.4 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g) LC50 3.3 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); 50 mg/L (PNN); 4.00E-002 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 0.5 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

ND

Alteplase
105857-23-6
Activase®

CVS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Chemical waste incinerator

Aminophylline
317-34-0
Truphylline®

CVS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical

Amiodarone
1951-25-3
Cordarone®

CVS

7 (3,3,1)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Aripiprazole
129722-12-9
Abilify ®

Psy

6 (3,0,3)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Oncorhynchusk LC50>0.12 mg/L 96h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Activated Sludge EC50>1,000 mg/L 3h. Expected to bioaccumulate Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Benztropine
132-17-2
Cogentin

CNS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 0.29 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Cyprinodonl LC50 0.05 mg/L (Topkat v6.1); fish LC50 2.9 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); fish LC50 8.1 mg/L (Aster); fish LC50 14.7 mg/L (PNN); fish LC50 1.64E-002 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 0.3 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

Incineration is the preferred method of disposal

Betamethasone
378-44-9
Celestone ®

ED

9 (3,3,3)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 924 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish LC50 388 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); 10,576 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); 1.3 mg/L (PNN); 5.33E+000 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR); EC50 or LC50 924 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 924 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

Incineration is the preferred method of disposal

Betaxolol
63659-18-7
Kerlone®

CVS

ND (ND,0,ND)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS: ND
Literature: Daphnia EC50>300mg/L 48 h[116]
Predicted: ND.
WikiPharma:
Daphnia EC50>300mg/L 48h.

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Do not allow product to enter drinking water supplies, wastewater or soil.
Literature; Predicted: ND

Burn in an incinerator equipped with afterburner and scrubber.

Brimonidine
59803-98-4
Alphagan®

Ophtho

ND

Cannot be excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Bupropion
31677-93-7
BudeprionXL®

Psy

6(3,0,3)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Products of biodegradation are possibly hazardous. Short-term degradation products are not likely. Long-term degradation products may arise.  The products of degradation are more toxic than the parent drug.

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Citalopram
59729-32-7
Celexa®

Psy

6(3,0,3)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS: ND
Literature: Daphnia EC50 20 mg/L 48h[119]; CeriodaphniamLC50 3.9 mg/L 48h[120]
Predicted: ND.
WikiPharma:
Ceriodaphnia EC50 20 mg/L 48h; LC50 3.9 mg/L 48h.

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: ND
Literature: Pseudokirchneriellan EC50 1.6 mg/L 48h [119]
Predicted: ND.
WikiPharma:
Pseudokirchneriella EC50 1.6mg/L 48h.

ND

Clonazepam
1622-61-3
Klonopin®

Psy

4 (3,0,1)

Insignificant

MSDS: Daphnia EC50 30 mg/L 48h.
Literature: ND Predicted: Daphnia, algae or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 3.1 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS: Oncorhynchus LC50 1000 mg/L 96h.
Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish EC50 or LC50 3.1 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); Cyprinodon LC50 0.9 mg/L (Topkat v6.1); fish LC50 40 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); 76 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); 107 mg/L (Aster); 122 mg/L (PNN); 7.43E-001 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR)

MSDS:Scenedesmuso EC50>100 mg/L; Desmodesmusp ErC50q>240 mg/L 72h; not inherently biodegradable 0 %, 21 d.
Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 3.1 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

ND

Clozapine
5786-21-0
Clozaril®,

Psy

9 (3,3,3)

Low

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Cyclopentolate
512-15-2
Cyclogyl®)

Ophtho

ND (ND,0,ND)

Cannot be excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Dantrolene
14663-23-1
Dantrium IV®

Mus

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Do not dispose of the material in any sanitary sewer or storm sewer system, which includes sinks, toilets, and floor drains.

Digoxin
20830-75-5
Digitek®

CVS

ND

Cannot be excluded

MSDS: Daphnia LC50 192 mg/L 24h; EC50 24 mg/L 24h.
Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphniaor mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 21,239 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).
WikiPharma:
Artemiar LC50 9996 mg/L 24h; Brachionuss LC50 9996 mg/L 24h; Daphnia EC50 9996 mg/L 24h; EC50 24 mg/L 24h; StreptocephalustLC50 9996mg/L 24h; Hydrau EC50 0.1 mg/L 7d; chronic Hydra EC50 0.01mg/L 17d.

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish LC50 1.49E+002 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR); Fish EC50 or LC50 21,239 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: algae EC50 or LC50 21,239 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).
WikiPharma:
Photobacteriumv EC50 9996mg/L 5min; Spirostomumw LC50 35 mg/L 24h; EC50 8.8 mg/L 24h; Tetrahymenax EC50 26 mg/L 24h.

ND

Diltiazem
33286-22-5
Cardizem®

CVS

4(3,0,1)

Cannot be excluded

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia, or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC502.9 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).
WikiPharma:
ThamnocephalusyLC50 73 mg/L 24h; EC50 10 mg/L 1h; Daphnia EC50 8.2 mg/L 96h; 28 mg/L 48h.

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Cyprinodon LC50 0.002 mg/L (Topkat v6.1); Fish LC50 23 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); LC50 5.8 mg/L (Aster); LC50 11 mg/L (PNN); LC50 1.85E+001 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR).
WikiPharma:
Oryziasz LC50 15 mg/L 96h; LC50 26 mg/L 48h.

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: algae EC50 or LC502.9 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).
WikiPharma:
Vibrioaa EC50 264 mg/L 15min; EC50 407 mg/L 5min; EC50 152 mg/L 24h.

ND

Diphenhydramine
58-73-1
Benadryl ®

Pulmonary

ND

ND

MSDS; Predicted: ND
Literature: Daphnia LC50 0.37 mg/L 48h [121]; Ceriodaphnia IC 502.0 mg/L 6-8d [122].
WikiPharma:
Ceriodaphnia LC50 3.9 mg/L 48h; EC50 1.0 mg/L 7d.

MSDS; Predicted: ND
Literature: Pimephalesbb LC50 @ pH 6.5 59.3 mg/L 48h; LC50 @ pH 8.5 2.1 mg/L 48h[121]; DanioccIC50dd 16.6 mg/L 5d[122]

MSDS; Predicted: ND
Literature: Pseudokirchneriella IC 501.2 mg/L 72h[122]

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Divalproex
76584-70-8
Depakote®)

CNS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Incinerate in an approved facility.

Dobutamine
49745-95-1

CVS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Dopamine
62-31-7

CVS

ND

Cannot be excluded

MSDS:Daphnia EC50 25 mg/L 48h.
Literature: Predicted: ND

MSDS:Leuciscusee LC50 2200 - 4600 mg/L 96h
Literature: Predicted: ND

MSDS:Algae EC50<1 mg/L 72h; not readily biodegradable; bioaccumulation is unlikely; very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Literature: Predicted: ND

ND

Dorzolamide and
Timolol
130693-82-2 & 26921-17-5
Cosopt®

Optho

Dorzolamide:
3(3,0,0)

Timol
ND(ND,0,ND)

Dorzolamide:
Cannot be excluded

Timolol:
Cannot be excluded

Dorzolamide: MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 9 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

Timolol:
MSDS: Daphnia LC50 161 mg/L 48 h
Literature; Predicted: ND

Dorzolamide:MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish LC50 126 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); 2334 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); 548 mg/L  (Aster); 32 mg/L (PNN); 4.03E+000 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR); EC50 or LC50 9 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

Timolol:
MSDS:Pimephales LC50411 mg/L 96 h
Literature; Predicted: ND

Dorzolamide:
MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 9 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

Timolol:
MSDS; Does not have significant aquatic toxicity. Based on ASRIT results, concentrations must be >1000 mg/L to inhibit an unacclimated sludge system in a sewage treatment plant.
Literature; Predicted: ND.
WikiPharma:
Eiseniaff LC50>2000 mg/L 14d.

Dorzolamide:
ND.

Timolol:
Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Droperidol
548-73-2
Inapsine®

CNS

ND

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Product may be burned in an incinerator equipped with afterburner and scrubber.

Enalapril
75847-73-3
Vasotec®

CVS

3 (3,0,0)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature, Predicted: ND.
WikiPharma:
Thamnocephalus LC50 184 mg/L 24h.

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Eptifibatide
148031-34-9 / 188627-80-7
Integrilin®

CVS

ND (ND,0,ND)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Do not allow product to enter drinking water supplies, waste water or soil.  Dissolve or mix material with a suitable combustible solvent and incinerate in a chemical incinerator equipped with an
After burner and scrubber.

Escitalopram
219861-08-2
Lexapro®

Psy

6 (3,0,3)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Esmolol
81161-17-3
Brevibloc®

NS

ND

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 6.0 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Cyprinodon LC50 70 mg/L (Topkat v6.1); fish LC50 45 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); 84 mg/L (Aster); 6.5 mg/L (PNN); 7.30E+001 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR); EC50 or LC50 6.0 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 6.0 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

ND

Esomeprazole
119141-88-7
Nexium®

GI

2 (0,0,2)

Insignificant

MSDS: Daphnia EC50>100 mg/L 48h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS:Danio LC50 42 mg/L 96h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Harmful to aquatic organisms. Green algae EbC50gg 19 mg/L 72h; not biodegradable; low potential for bioaccumulation.
Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Fluoxetine
54910-89-3
Prozac®

Psy

6 (3,0,3)

Low

MSDS: Daphnia EC50 0.9 mg/L 48h.
Literature: Daphnia LC50 0.8 mg/L 48h [123]; EC50 6.4 mg/L 48h[119]; LC50 0.5 mg/L 48h[120]; Ceriodaphnia LC50 0.2 mg/L 48h[123]; Chironomushh chronic LC50 15 mg/kg 10d; Hyalellaii LC50>43 mg/kg 10d[123]
Predicted:ND
WikiPharma: ArtemaEC50 14 mg/L 48h; Brachionus LC50 0.3 mg/L 24h; 0.97 mg/L 15min; Ceriodaphnia LC50 0.5 mg/L 48h; 0.2 mg/L 48h; Daphnia EC50 6.4 mg/l 48h; 5.9 mg/L 48h; LC50 0.8 mg/L 48h; Hyalella LC50>43mg/L 10d; Hydra EC50 7.9 and 8.7 mg/L 96h; Plationusjj LC50 0.06 and 0.2 mg/L 48h; Thamnocephalus LC50 0.9 mg/L 24h; 1.2 mg/L 15min.

MSDS: Oncorhynchus LC50 1.6 mg/L 96h.
Literature: Oryzias LC50 5.5 mg/l at pH 7 96h; LC50 1.3 mg/L at pH 8 96h; LC50 0.2 mg/L at pH 9 96h[124]; Pimephales LC50 0.7 mg/L 48h[123];
LC50 0.212 mg/L for R-fluoxetine 48h; LC50 0.198 mg/L for rac-fluoxetine 48h; and LC50 0.216 mg/L for S-fluoxetine 48h[125]
Predicted: ND
WikiPharma: Cyprinodon LC50>2,000 mg/L 96h; GambusiakkLC50 546 ppb 7d; Pimphales LC500.2 mg/L 24h; 0.7 mg/L 24h.
Predicted: ND.

MSDS: Very toxic to aquatic life.
Pseudokirchneriella EC50 0.02 mg/L 96h [123]; IC 500.4 mg/L 96h; EC50 0.03 mg/L 48h [119]; ScenedesmusIC 500.09 mg/L 96h; IC 500.2 mg/L 96h; ChlorellallIC 504.3 mg/L 96h [161]
Predicted: algae EC50 0.8 mg/L Ecosar (v0.99g).
Wikipharma: ChironomusLC50 15 mg/L 10d; Crassostreamm EC50 189 mg/L 24h; 192 mg/L 30h; Davaliellann IC 500.2 mg/L 96h; Haliotisoo EC50 2.4 and 16 mg/L 48h;
Lemnapp EC50>1 mg/L 7d; Pseudokirchneriella EC500.2 mg/L 72h; 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 mg/L 120h; IC 500.045 mg/L 96h; Scenedesmus IC 500.09 and 0.2 mg/L 96h; Skeletonemaqq EC50 0.04 mg/L 72h; Xenopusrr (egg) EC50 4.9 mg/L 96h; LC50 7.5 mg/L 96h.

ND

Flurbiprofen
5104-49-4
Ocufen®

Ophtho

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia EC50 0.6 mg/L (Topkat v6.1); Daphnia chronic EC50 5.0 mg/L; Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 2.9 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Cyprinodon LC50 0.5 mg/L (Topkat v6.1); fish LC50 36 mg/L; fish EC50 or LC50 2.9 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g);  fish LC50 5.5 mg/L (Aster); 5.5 mg/L (PNN); 3.60E-002 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 2.9 mg/L; algae chronic EC50 5.0 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

ND

Furosemide
54-31-9
Lasix®

Renal

4 (3,0,1)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:
Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 234 mg/L;Daphnia chronic EC50 79 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)
Wikipharma: Daphnia EC50 61 mg/L 24h; Ceriodaphnia EC5084 mg/L 48h; chronic EC50 2.4 mg/L 7d;Brachionus EC50 2.5 mg/L 48h;. Thamnocephalus LC50 71 mg/L 24h.

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:
Fish LC50 1227 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); fish LC50 431 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); 406 mg/L (Aster); 61 mg/L (PNN); 1.23E+000 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR);  fish EC50 or LC50 234 mg/L; (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:
Algae EC50 or LC50 234 mg/L; chronic EC50 79 mg/L(Ecosar v0.99g).

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Haloperidol
52-86-8
Haldol®

Psy

8 (3,3,2)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia, algae or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 4.0 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Cyprinodon LC50 0.02 mg/L (Topkat v6.1); fish LC50 13 mg/L (Aster); 6.0 mg/L (PNN); 2.38E-002mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR); 4.0 mg/L; fish EC50 or LC50 4.0 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 4.0 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

ND

Hydralazine
304-20-1
Apresoline®

CVS

6 (3,0,3)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Ipratropium
60205-81-4

Pulmonary
RCRA

6 (3,0,3)

Insignificant

MSDS:Daphnia EC50>100 mg/L 48h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Labetalol
36894-69-6
Trandate®

CVS

6 (3,0,3)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS: Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia EC50 1 - 10 mg/ml 48h (QSAR).

MSDS:Brachydanioss LC50 100 mg/ml 96h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: moderate bioaccumulation potential; classified as dangerous to the environment.
Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae IC 501 to 10 mg/ml 72 h (QSAR).

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Lamotrigine
84057-84-1
Lamictal®

CNS

4 (3,0,1)

Insignificant

MSDS: Daphnia EC50 56 mg/L 48h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS:Oncorhynchus EC50 85 mg/L 96h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Activated Sludge LC50>1000 mg/L 3h; algae LC50 40 mg/L 72h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Levetiracetam
102767-28-2
Keppra®

CNS

ND

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Lithium
554-13-2
Lithobid®

Psy

ND

ND

MSDS: contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient that is toxic to daphnids.
Literature,Predicted: ND
Wikipharma: Artema EC50 4275 mg/L 24h; Brachionus EC50 709 mg/L 24h
Daphnia EC50 33 mg/L 24 h; Streptocephalus EC50 112 mg/L 24h.

MSDS: contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient that is toxic to fish
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature, Predicted: ND
Wikipharma: Vibrio EC50 18,660 mg/L 5min.

ND

Methylprednisolone
83-43-2
Solumedrol®

ED

ND

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: This material is very soluble in water, not expected to enter the air. Microbes similar to those found in activated sludge are capable of biodegrading steroids completely. Highly soluble in water and poorly soluble in non-polar mediums. Expected to have a low bioaccumulative potential.
Literature; Predicted: ND

Dispose of by incineration.

Metoclopramide
7232-21-5
Reglan®

GI

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Nicotine
54-11-5

CNS
RCRA

3 (3,0,0)

Insignificant

MSDS:Daphnia EC50 0.2 mg/L 48h.
Literature, Predicted: ND.
Wikipharma:Artemia LC50 488 mg/L 24h; BrachionusLC50 219 mg/L 24h; Daphnia EC50 5.8 mg/L; 8570mM; 0.2 mg/L 24h; Artemia LC50 488 mg/L; 0.6 mg/L 24h; Brachionus LC50 219 mg/L; 0.5mg/L 24h; Streptocephalus LC50 0.5 mg/L; 115 mg/L 24h.

MSDS: Oncorhynchus LC50 4 mg/L 96h.
Literature, Predicted: ND
Wikipharma: Oncorhynchus EC50 7252 mg/L 3h.

MSDS: Activated sludge EC50 0.24 mg/L 48h; Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
Literature, Predicted: ND
Wikipharma: Photobacterium EC50 0.38 mg/L; 38 mg/L 5min; 38 mg/L 15min.

Burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Norepinephrine
51-41-2
Levophed®

CVS

ND

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber

Olanzapine
132539-06-1
Zyprexa®

Psy

2 (0,0,2)

Insignificant

MSDS: Moderately toxic to fish and invertebrates.
Literature; Predicted ND

MSDS: Moderately toxic to fish and invertebrates.
Literature; Predicted ND

MSDS:Slightly toxic to green algae. Practically non-toxic to microorganisms. No volatility expected. Low potential to bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms. Persistence in the environment not expected.
Literature; Predicted ND

ND

Paliperidone
144598-75-4
Invega®

Psy

4 (3,0,1)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS:Danio LC50 18mg/L96h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS:NOECtt Chronic Toxicity: >1 mg/l. Literature; Predicted: ND.

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Paroxetine
78246-49-8
PAXIL

Psy

6 (3,0,3)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS:Daphnia EC50>17 mg/L 48 h.
Literature: Daphnia EC50 6.3 mg/L 48h [119]; EC50 2.5 mg/L 48h [127]; Ceriodaphnia LC50 0.6 mg/L 48h [120].
Predicted: ND.

MSDS: Oncorhynchus LC50>16 mg/L 96h.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: ND
Literature: Pseudokirchneriella EC50 0.1 mg/L 48h [192].
Predicted: ND.
Wikipharma:
Xenopus(egg) LC50 5.1 mg/L 96h; EC50 4.1 mg/L 96h.

ND

Phenytoin
57-41-0
Dilantin®

CNS

ND

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS: ND
Literature: Ceriodaphnia IC 507.8 mg/L 6-8d [122];
Predicted:
HyallelaLC5018 mg/L 96h(OPPTS); Daphnia EC50>39 mg/L 48h;
Daphnia EC50 16.5 mg/l (Topkat v6.1);Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 246 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS: ND
Literature: Danio IC 50>16.4 mg/L 5d [122];
Predicted: Pimephales LC50>23 mg/L 96h (OPPTS)LC50 8.8 mg/l  (Topkat v6.1); fish LC50 52 mg/l (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); LC50 157 mg/l (Aster); LC50 122 mg/l (PNN); LC50 1.32E+000 mg/l  (Neutral Organics QSAR); fish EC50 or LC50 246 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS: ND
Literature: Pseudokirchneriella IC 5028.3 mg/L 72h [122].
Predicted: algaeEC50 or LC50 246mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g);algae EC50 148 mg/L Ecosar (Johnson et al. 2007).

ND

Pilocarpine
92-13-7
PILOPINE HS®,

Optho

6 (3,0,3)

Cannot be excluded

MSDS: Daphnia EC50 13.1 mg/l 48h.
Literature; Predicted ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Activated sludge  > 1000 mg/l 3 h.  Not easily biodegradable. No bioaccumulatlon is to be expected. Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Promethazine
60-87-7
PHENERGAN®

Pulmonary

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC500.2 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Cyprinodon LC500.1   mg/l (Topkat v6.1); fish LC502 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g); LC50 2.5 mg/l (Aster); LC50 28 mg/l (PNN); LC50 9.62E-003 mg/l (Neutral Organics QSAR); EC50 or LC50 0.2 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC500.2 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g).

ND

Quetiapine
111974-72-2
Seroquel®

Psy

5 (3,0,2)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Harmful to aquatic organisms. Green algae NOEC (growth rate) 2.5 mg/L14d; NOEC(cell density) 2.5 mg/L14d; blue-green algae NOEC (growth rate) 2.5 mg/L14d.

Dissolve or mix material with a suitable combustible solvent and incinerate in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Risperidone
106266-06-2
RISPERDAL®

Psy

5
(3,0,2)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Sertraline
79559-97-0
Zoloft®

Psy

6 (3,0,3)

Moderate

MSDS:Daphnia EC50 0.6 mg/L48h
Literature:
Daphnia EC50 0.9 mg/L 48h [119];
Ceriodaphnia LC50 0.1 mg/L 48h [120].
Predicted: ND
WikiPharma: Artemia EC50 4.1 mg/L 48h; Ceriodaphnia LC500.1 mg/L and 0.4 mg/L 48h;Daphnia EC500.9 mg/L, 3.1 mg/L 24h; 1.2 mg/L and 1.3 mg/L 48h; 0.07 mg/L 21d; LC50 0.1 mg/L 21d; Hydra EC50 1.8 mg/L 96h; Thamnocephalus LC50 0.6 mg/L 24h

MSDS: Oncorhynchus LC50 12,900-15,300 mg/L 96h; Pimephales LC50 0.3 mg/L 96h.
Literature:
LC50 @ pH 6.5 0.5 mg/L 7d; EC50 (growth) @ pH 6.5 0.54 mg/L 7d; @ pH 7.5 0.13 mg/L 7d; & @ pH 8.5 0.05 mg/l 7d; EC50 (feeding rate) @ pH 6.5 0.2 mg/L 7d; @ pH 7.5 0.15 mg/L 7d; @ pH 8.5 0.08 mg/L 7d [128].
WikiPharma: Oncorhynchus LC50 0.38 mg/L96h; Pimephales LC50 1.9, 2.3 and 2.7 mg/L 48h; EC50 0.05 -0.5 mg/L 7d

MSDS: Pseudokirchneriella NPDES EC500.03 mg/L 96h; Skeletonema NPDES EC500.03 mg/L 96h;   Pseudokirchneriella TAD NOEC 0.033 mg/L 12d. Toxicity to wastewater treatment microorganisms may occur. In the environment, the active ingredient in this formulation is expected to remain in water or migrate through the soil to groundwater. Releases to the environment should be avoided.
Literature:
Chlorella IC 500.8 mg/L 96h [127].
Predicted: algae EC50 118 mg/L Ecosar..
WikiPharma:
Chlorella IC 500.8 mg/L 96h; Crassostrea EC50 1.1 mg/L 24h; 0.07 mg/L 36h; Haliotis EC50 0.7 and 4.4 mg/L 48h; Pseudokirchneriella EC50 0.04 mg/L 48h; 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L 72h; IC 500.01 mg/L 96h; Scenedesmus IC 500.1 and 0.3 mg/L 96h; Skeletonema EC50 0.07 mg/L 72h; Vibrio EC50 11 mg/L 5min; 9.2 mg/L 15min and7.3 mg/L 30min; Xenopus EC50 3.3 mg/L 96h; LC50 3.9mg/L 96h.

ND

Terbutaline
23031-32-5

Pulmonary

3 (3,0,0)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a
chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Tetracaine
136-47-0

LA

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC501.4 mg/L(Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:
Cyprinodon LC50 1.2 mg/l (Topkat v6.1); fish LC5011.4mg/L(Ecosar v0.99g); 69,317 mg/L (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); 2.5 mg/L (Aster); 3.4 mg/L (PNN); 2.15E-001 mg/L(Neutral Organics QSAR);EC50 or LC50 1.4mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted:
Algae EC50 or LC50 1.4 mg/L(Ecosar v0.99g).

ND

Timolol
26839-75-8
Blocadren

CVS

ND (ND,0,ND)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS:Daphnia LC50 161 mg/L 48 h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS:Pimephales LC50411 mg/L 96 h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Does not have significant aquatic toxicity. Based on ASRIT results, concentrations must be >1000 mg/L to inhibit an unacclimated sludge system in a sewage treatment plant. Literature; Predicted: ND.
WikiPharma:
Eisenia LC50>2000 mg/L 14d.

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Topiramate
97240-79-4
TOPAMAX®

CNS

4 (3,0,1)

Insignificant

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Tramadol
22204-88-2
36282-47-0
53611-16-8
ULTRAM(R)

CNS

ND(ND,0,ND)

Cannot be excluded

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS:Carassiusuu LC0 5 mg/l 96 h; LC50 6.2 mg/l 96 h; LC100 7.5 mg/l 96 h
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND
WikiPharma:
PseudomonasvvEC50>4000 mg/L 16h.

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber.

Trazodone
25332-39-2
DESYREL®

Psy

ND

Not Rated

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia, or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC501.5 mg/l(Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: fish LC50 0.4 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g); LC505.7 mg/l (Aster); LC50 31mg/l (PNN); LC502.01E-001 mg/l (Neutral Organics QSAR); fish, EC50 or LC501.5 mg/l(Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: algae EC50 or LC501.5 mg/l(Ecosar v0.99g).

ND

Triamcinolone
76-25-5
Kenalog®

ED

4 (3,0,1)

Cannot be excluded

MSDS:Acute Toxicity to aquatic invertebrates: EC50> 100 mg/l 48h20 - 25°C.
Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS: Not Readily Biodegradable.
Literature; Predicted: ND

Disposal by incineration is recommended.

Tropicamide
1508-75-4
MYDRIACYL®,

Ophtho

ND (ND,0,ND)

Cannot be excluded

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 626mg/l;chronic toxicity to DaphniaEC50 44 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g)

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: fish LC50 1,217 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g) LC50 1144 mg/l (Oasis Forecast M v1.10); LC50 1506 mg/l (Aster);LC5044 mg/l (PNN); LC50 1.22E+001 mg/l (Neutral Organics QSAR); EC50 or LC50 626 mg/l (Ecosar v0.99g).

MSDS; Literature: ND 
Predicted: algae EC50 or LC50 626 mg/l;chronic toxicity to algae EC50 44 mg/l(Ecosar v0.99g)

ND

Vasopressin 24564-52-1 Pitressin

CVS

ND

ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

MSDS; Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

Verapamil
152-11-4
Calan®

CVS

7 (3,3,1)

Cannot Be Excluded

MSDS: ND
Literature: Daphnia LC50 7 mg/L 48h[115].
Predicted: Daphnia or mysid shrimp EC50 or LC50 0.7 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g)
WikiPharma:
Artemia LC50 0.1 mg/L; 330 mg/L; 342 mg/L 24h; Brachionus LC50 0.6 mg/L; 10.1 mg/L 24h;Daphnia LC50 7.0 mg/L 48h; EC50 0.9 mg/L; 51 mg/L; 302 mg/L 24h; StreptocephalusLC50 0.5 mg/L; 5.8 mg/L 24h; Thamnocephalus LC50 9.3 mg/L 24h; EC50 9.1 mg/L 1h

MSDS: Literature: ND
Predicted: Fish LC50 0.97 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g); 8.2 mg/L (Aster); 82 mg/L (PNN); 8.15E-003 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR); fish EC50 or LC50 0.7 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g).
WikiPharma:
Oncorhynchus EC50 1705 mg/L 3h.

MSDS; Literature: ND
Predicted: Algae EC50 or LC50 0.7 mg/L (Ecosar v0.99g.
WikiPharma:
Lemna EC50 24.3 mg/L 7d; Photobacterium IC 501.3 mg/L 5min; 403 mg/L 15 min; Spirostomum LC50 9.8 mg/L 24h; EC50 7.8 mg/L 24h; Tetrahymena EC50 358 mg/L 24h.

ND

Warfarin
81-81-2
Coumadin®

HEM
RCRA

4 (3,0,1)

Low

MSDS: Daphnia EC50>17 mg/L 48h.
Literature: ND
Predicted: ND
WikiPharma:
Artemia LC50 3638 mg/L 24h;
Daphnia EC50 475 mg/L 24h; Streptocephalus LC50 342 mg/L 24h; Brachionus LC50 444 mg/L 24h.

MSDS: Oncorhynchus LC50>16 mg/L.
Literature: ND
Predicted: ND
WikiPharma:
Rasboraww LC50 12 mg/L 96h.

MSDS: Harmful to aquatic life.
Literature; Predicted: ND

ND

A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed; 4,889 records from the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records from the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded. Weights are for active ingredient, e.g. a 1 g dose of acetazolamide was recorded as 1 g regardless of the total weight of the drug formulation.
N.b. MSDS = Material Safety Data Sheet (Safety Data Sheet –Global Harmonization). WikiPharma = WikiPharma database (http://www/WikiPharma.org) is a compilation of publicly available ecotoxicity data for human pharmaceuticals available in Sweden.
a. Class – pharmaceutical is used to treat disease (e.g., Optho = eye; Pulmonary – lung function; Psy = mood altering; CVS = cardiovascular; CNS = central nervous system; ED = endocrine; Mus = musculo-skeletal; NS – nervous system, GI – gastrointestinal; Renal – kidney; Radiology – imaging, LA = local anesthetic).
b. Ecotoxicity: from material safety data sheets (MSDSs).
c. CAS# - Chemical Abstracts Services unique chemical identification number.
d. PBT : persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (0 – 3 range for each, with zero being the most benign).
e. Risk: defined as - cannot be excluded, insignificant, low, moderate, and high
f. Disposal – from MSDSs - n.b., does not apply to consumers or end users – refer to US FDA guidelines and office of national drug control policy (ONDCP, 2007).
g. ND = no data available or not determined.
h. Daphnia: crustacean, water flea.
i. EC50: concentration of a material which is expected to cause an adverse biological effect on 50% of the test organisms – acute toxicity.
j. LC50: lethal concentration that kills 50% of the test organisms – acute toxicity.
k. Oncorhynchus: rainbow trout, fish.
l. Cyprinodon: minnow, fish
m. Ceriodaphnia: invertebrate, crustacean
n. Pseudokirchneriella (AKA: Synechococcus):unicellular cyanobacteria
o. Scenedesmus:green algae.
p. Desmodesmus:green algae.
q. ErC50:is theEC50 of growth rate reduction in 72 hours, acute toxicity.
r. Artemia: brine shrimp, invertebrate, crustacean.
s. Brachionus: rotifer, invertebrate.
t. Streptocephalus:fairy shrimp,invertebrate, crustacean.
u. Hydra:Cnidarian, invertebrate.
v. Photobacterium:bioluminescent, gram-negative bacteria.
w. Spirostomum: ciliated protozoan.
x. Tetrahymena:ciliated protozoan.
y. Thamnocephalus:fairyshrimp, crustacean.
z. Oryzias: ricefish.
aa. Vibrio: gram-negative bacteria.
bb. Pimephales:fathead minnow, fish.
cc. Danio: zebrafish, fish.
dd. IC 50: concentration of a material in water which is expected to cause an inhibitory effect on 50% of the test organisms – acute toxicity.
ee. Leuciscus: orfe,fish.
ff. Eisenia: common earthworm.
gg. Eisenia: common earthworm.
hh. EbC50: is the EC50 of the reduction in biomass growth in 72 hours, acute toxicity.
ii. Chironomus: midge, arthropod.
jj. Hyalella:amphipod crustacean.
kk. Plationus: rotifer, invertebrate.
ll. Gambusia: mosquitofish.
mm. Chlorella: green algae.
nn. Crasostrea: oyster, shellfish.
oo. Dunaliella: green algae.
pp. Haliotis: abalone, shellfish.
qq. Lemna: snail.
rr. Skeletonema: diatom.
ss. Xenopus: clawed frog.
tt. Brachydanio: fish.
uu. NOEC: no observable effect concentration, concentration of a material that causes no observable effect on test organisms – acute toxicity.
vv. Carassius: goldfish.
ww. Pseudomonas: common environmental bacteria.
xx. Rasbora: harlequin fish.
Table 2: Summary of Metabolism and Excretion of the Most Frequently Wasted and Discarded Pharmaceuticals at an Academic Medical Center Hospital and a Surgical Care Center in Albany, NY

Pharmaceutical – Drug Classa

Metabolism - Excretionb

Generic Name (CAS #c -Trade name®)

Drug Class

Metabolismd

Active Metabolitese

Excretion of Parent Compoundf

Drug Conjugates (glucuronides) Excretedg

Acetazolamide
59-66-5
Diamox ®

Ophtho

Nh

N

Y90%i

N

Albuterol
51022-70-9
Proventil ®

Pulmonary

Yj

NDk

Y

ND

Albuterol and Ipratropium
66985-17-9 and 51022-70-9
Combivent®

Pulmonary

Y

ND

Y50%(Ipra.) Y10.2-30.8%(Alb.)

ND

Dexamethasone
50-02-2
Decadron

ED

Y

ND

Y65%

ND

Diatrizoatemeglumine
131-49-7
Gastrografin®

Radiology

N

N

Y95-100%

ND

Gadodiamide
131410-48-5
Omniscan ®

Radiology

N

N

Y95%

ND

Glycopyrrolate
596-51-0
Rubinol®

Ophtho

N

N

Y80%

ND

Ibuprofen
15687-27-1
Advil®

NSAID

Y100%

N

Y

ND

Insulin
160337-95-1
Lantus®

ED

Y

N

N

N

Iopamidol
60166-93-0
Isovue®

Radiology

N

N

Y90% (Urine) 1% (Fecal)

ND

Ketorolac
74103-07-4
Toradol®

Mus

Y40%

N

Y60% (Urine) 6% (Fecal)

N

Mepivacaine
1722-62-9
Polocaine®

LA

Y90%

N

Y5-10%

ND

Metoprolol
83-43-2
Lopressor®,

CVS

Y

N

Y~5%

ND

Neostigmine
59-99-4
Prostigmin®

Ophtho

Y30%

N

Y50%

ND

Nicardipine
54527-84-3 / 55985-32-5
Cardene IV®

CVS

Y 99%

N

Y <1%

Y

Nitroglycerine
55-63-0
Nitrostat®,

CVS

Y

Y

N

ND

Ondansetron
99614-02-5
Zofran®

GI

Y95%

N

Y05%

Y

Oxymetazoline
2315-02-8
Afrin®

NS

N

N

Y

ND

Phenylephrine
61-76-7
Neo-Synephrine®

CVS

Yg

Nh

Y12%i

NDj

Prednisone
53-03-2
Deltasone®

ED

Y

Y

Y

Y

A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection. There were 4,889 records at the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records for the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded. Weights are for active ingredient, e.g., a 1g dose was recorded as 1g regardless of the total weight of the drug formulation.
a. Class – pharmaceutical is used to treat disease (e.g., Optho = eye; Pulmonary – lung function; Psy = mood altering; CVS = cardiovascular; CNS = central nervous system; ED = endocrine; Mus = musculo-skeletal; NS – nervous system, GI – gastrointestinal; Renal – kidney; Radiology – imaging, LA = local anesthetic).
b. Metabolism — Excretion: data are summarized from official government drug monographs and labels Drugs@FDA (http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index.cfm); DailyMed (http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/about.cfm), RxList (http://www.rxlist.com/drugs/alpha_a.htm ), Drugs.com (http://www.drugs.com/ ) and the Hazardous Substances Data Bank, United States National Library of Medicine TOXNET Toxicology Data Network (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB). Where data were insufficient, a search of the primary literature was conducted.
c. CAS# - Chemical Abstracts Services unique chemical identification number.
d. Metabolism: indicates the drug undergoes change in the body.
e. Active Metabolites: indicates the drug is changed in the body to pharmacologically active compounds prior to excretion, thus the risk to the environment from the excreted drug may reside in its metabolites and not in the parent compound.
f. Excretion of Parent Compound: indicates that the drug, or a portion of the dose, is excreted unchanged.
g. Drug Conjugates (glucuronides) Excreted: indicates excretion (urine or feces) of drug as conjugate.
h. N: no.
i. Value within parentheses: the percent of the drug that is excreted unchanged or the percent of the drug that is metabolized unchanged. Y (fecal and 10 – 40% urine) indicates that some fraction of the drug is excreted in the feces unchanged and from 10 to 40% of the drug is also excreted in the urine unchanged. Y (< 5%) indicates that less than 5% of the drug is metabolized, more than 95% is not].
j. Y: yes.
k. ND: not determined, no data available.
Supplementary Table 2: Summary of Metabolism and Excretion of Wasted and Discarded Pharmaceuticals at an Academic Medical Center Hospital and a Surgical Care Center in Albany, NY.

Pharmaceutical –Drug Classa

Metabolism - Excretionb

Generic Name
(CAS #c -Trade name®)

Drug Class

Metabolismd

Active Metabolitese

Excretion of Parent Compoundf

Drug Conjugates (glucuronides)Excretedg

Acetylcholine
60-31-1
Miochol ®

Ophtho

Yh

Ni

N

N

Alprazolam
28981-97-7
Xanax ®

Psy

Y

N

Y

NDj

Amiodarone
1951-25-3
Cordarone

CVS

Y

Y

Y

ND

Benztropine
132-17-2

CNS

ND

ND

Y

ND

Betamethasone
378-44-9
Celestone ®,

ED

Y

ND

Y

ND

Brimonidine
59803-98-4
Alphagan ®

Ophtho

Y

N

Y

N

Bupivacaine and Epinephrine
14252-80-3 and 51-43-4
Marcaine®

LA

Y

N

Y(5%)k

N

Clozapine
5786-21-0
Clozaril®,

Psy

Y

N

Ytrace

N

Cyclopentolate
512-15-2
Cyclogyl®)

Ophtho

ND

ND

ND

ND

Dantrolene
14663-23-1
Dantrium IV

Mus

Y

ND

Y

ND

Diphenhydramine
58-73-1
Benadryl ®

Pulmonary

Y55%

ND

Y45%

ND

Dorzolamide hydrochloride and  Timolol maleate
130693-82-2 and 26921-17-5
COSOPT®

Optho

Y

Y

Y

N

Esmolol
1161-17-3
BREVIBLOC

Ns

Y

N

Y2%

N

Esomeprazole
119141-88-7
Nexium®

GI

Y

N

Y<1%

N

Flurbiprofen
5104-49-4
Ocufen

Ophtho

Y

Y

Y3%

Y

Furosemide
54-31-9
LASIX®

Renal

Y

Y

Y

Y

Hydralazine
304-20-1
Apresoline®

CVS

Y

N

Y

N

Labetalol
36894-69-6
TRANDATE®

CVS

Y

N

Y

Y

Methylprednisolone
83-43-2
SOLU MEDROL®

ED

Y

Y

Y

Y

Metoclopramide
7232-21-5
REGLAN®

GI

Y

ND

Y85%

Y

Pilocarpine
92-13-7
PILOPINE HS®,

Optho

Y

N

Y

ND

Promethazine
60-87-7
PHENERGAN®

Pulmonary

Y

Y

N

N

Terbutaline
23031-32-5

Pulmonary

Y

N

Y60% (Urine) 6% (Fecal)

Y

Tetracaine
136-47-0

LA

Y

N

N

N

Triamcinolone
76-25-5
Kenalog®

ED

Y

N

Y40% (Urine) Y 60% (Fecal)

ND

Tropicamide
1508-75-4
MYDRIACYL®,

Ophtho

ND

ND

ND

ND

Vasopressin
24564-52-1
Pitressin

CVS

Y

N

Y5%

N

Verapamil
152-11-4
CALAN®

CVS

Y

ND

Y3-4%

ND

A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed. These were 4,889 records at the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records for the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded. Weights are for active ingredient, e.g. A 1 g dose of acetazolamide was recorded as 1 g regardless of the total weight of the drug formulation.
xx. Class – pharmaceutical is used to treat disease (e.g., Optho = eye; Pulmonary – lung function; Psy = mood altering; CVS = cardiovascular; CNS = central nervous system; ED = endocrine; Mus = musculo-skeletal; NS – nervous system, GI – gastrointestinal; Renal – kidney; Radiology – imaging, LA = local anesthetic).
yy. Metabolism — Excretion: data are summarized from official government drug monographs and labels Drugs@FDA (http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/drugsatfda/index.cfm); DailyMed (http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/about.cfm), RxList (http://www.rxlist.com/drugs/alpha_a.htm), and Drugs.com (http://www.drugs.com/). Where data were insufficient, a search of the primary literature was conducted.
zz. CAS# - Chemical Abstracts Services unique chemical identification number.
aaa. Metabolism: indicates the drug undergoes change in the body.
bbb. Active Metabolites: indicates the drug is changed in the body to pharmacologically active compounds prior to excretion, thus the risk to the environment from the excreteddrug may reside in its metabolites and not in the parent compound.
ccc. Excretion of Parent Compound: indicates that the drug, or a portion of the dose, is excreted unchanged.
ddd. Drug Conjugates (glucuronides) Excreted: indicates excretion (urine or feces) of drug as conjugate.
eee. Y=yes.
fff. N=no.
ggg. ND=not determined, no data available.
hhh. Value within parentheses: the percent of the drug that is excreted unchanged [e.g., Y (5%) indicates that 5% of the drug is excreted unchanged, 95% is not].
Drugs Dispensed, Wasted or Discarded by Therapeutic Class
As depicted in the pie chart (Figure 2), a total of 84 drugs were wasted from 14 separate therapeutic classes. Drugs affecting the cardiovascular system (CVS) were the most numerous (20), followed by psychiatric drugs (PSY) at 17, drugs used in ophthalmology (Ophtho) at 10, central nervous system drugs (CNS) at 9, regulated hazardous drugs (RCRA) at 7 and endocrine disrupting (ED) drugs at 5. Other therapeutic classes each had but 1 to 3 drugs wasted (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Wasting of 84 Drugs by 14 Therapeutic Classes
Total wasting by therapeutic class is depicted in the bar graph (Figure 3). Almost 2.3 kg of drugs were wasted with 5 classes accounting for nearly 80% of the waste (Optho, Radiology - Imaging, CVS, RCRA and local anesthetics - LA). In each therapeutic class one drug contributed the majority of waste: neostigmine – Optho; gadodiamide – Radiology-Imaging; phenylephrine – CVS; insulin – RCRA; mepivacaine – LA (local anesthetic); oxymetazoline – PNS (peripherial nervous system); dexamthasone – ED;

ondansetron – GI (gastro-intestinal); diphenhydramine – Pul (pulmonary); ketorolac – NSAID (anti-inflammatory); esmolol – CNS; alprazolam – PSY (psychiatric); furosemide – Renal; dantrolene – NUS/MR (muscle/muscle relaxant).
Figure 3: Weight of Drugs Wasted by Therapeutic Class.
Nearly 2.3 kg of 84 individual drugs representing 5 therapeutic classes were wasted or discarded. Twelve drugs (Figure 4) accounted for over 80% of the drug waste. The remaining 72 drugs or drug combinations (e.g., albuterol and ipratropium) contributed only 20% of the wasting.

Overall, drug wasting averaged 3% but was not uniform, varing from over 57% for insulin to about 0.2% for vasopressin (Figure 5).

As depicted in the bar graph (Figure 6), almost 56 kg of drugs were dispensed with 5 therapeutic classes (NSAID, CVS, GI, RCRA and ED) accounting for almost 80% of the drug dispensed. In each therapeutic class, one drug contributed the majority of the waste.

As depicted in Figure 7; 56 kg of 85 drugs were dispensed. Fifteen drugs accounted for over 80% of the total weight of drug dispensed while 68 drugs comprised the remaining 20% (note one drug was dispensed but not wasted).
Figure 4: Bar graph of cumulative drug waste (in grams) from two healthcare facilities
A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed. There were 4,889 records at the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records for the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded. Weights are for active ingredient, e.g., a 1g dose was recorded as 1g regardless of the total weight of the drug formulation. In this study, 12 drugs accounted for over 80% of the drug waste.
Figure 5: Bar graph of drug wasting as a percentage of drugs dispensed from two healthcare facilities.
A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed. There were 4,889 records at the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records for the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded.
Figure 6: Weight of Drugs Dispensed by Therapeutic Class
A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed; 4,889 records from the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records from the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded. Weights are for active ingredient, e.g. a 1 g dose of acetazolamide was recorded as 1 g regardless of the total weight of the drug formulation.
Class – pharmaceutical is used to treat disease (e.g., Optho = eye; Pulmonary – lung function; Psy = mood altering; CVS = cardiovascular; CNS = central nervous system; ED = endocrine; Mus = musculo-skeletal; NS – nervous system, GI – gastrointestinal; Renal – kidney; Radiology – imaging, LA = local anesthetic).
Figure 7:Bar graph of cumulative drugs dispensed (in grams) from two healthcare facilities
A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed from 2008 and 2009.There were 4,889 records for a one week period in April, 2009 at the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records from August, 2008 through February, 2009 for the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers from August, 2008 through February, 2009 placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded. Weights are for active ingredient, e.g., a 1g dose was recorded as 1 g regardless of the total weight of the drug formulation. In this study, 15 drugs accounted for over 80% of the drug dispensed.
Cost of Wasting
Based on pricing data provided by the particpating pharmacy department, the value represented by the wasted and discarded drugs exceeded $111,000. As depicted in Figure 8, the most costly drug wasting was associated with neostigmine, which accounted for nearly 30% of the discarded value ($31,692). Acetazolamide, dexamethasone,nitroglycerine, ondansetron, phenylephrine and tetracaine accounted for the rest of the top 80% of drugs wasted, for an aggregate total of almost $91,000
Figure 8:Bar graph of the cumulative cost of drug wasting from two healthcare facilities
Values were based on pricing data provided by the participating pharmacy department. A total of 12,345 drug records for dispensing and waste collection were reviewed; 4,889 records from the 630 bed Albany Medical Center Hospital and 7,257 records from the 20 bed South Clinical Campus of Albany Medical Center. The contents of 199 pharmaceutical waste collection containers placed at SCC were sorted by hand and the results tabulated by location, medication form and weight of units discarded. Note that seven drugs accounted for over 80% of the costs of drugs wasted.
PBT and Environmental Risk Ratio (PEC/PNEC) of Healthcare Pharmaceuticals
Five of the top 12 wasted and dispensed drugs have PBT scoring values, with ondansetron a 6 of 9, oxymetazoline a 5 of 9, albuterol and mepivacaine a 4 of 9 and gadodiamide a 3 of 9. All 5 are considered very persistant (P value of 3 of 3; not readily biodegradable) and none were bioaccumulative (B value of 0 of 3, no bioaccumulation). Ondansetron is considered ”very highly toxic” (T value of 3 of 3; EC50, IC 50or LC50< 1.0 mg/L), oxymetazoline is ”highly toxic” (T value of 2 of 3 EC50, IC 50or LC50 of 1.0 to 10 mg/L), albuterol and mepivacaine are ”moderate toxicity” (T value of 1 of 3; EC50, IC 50or LC50 of 10 to 100 mg/L), and gadodiamide was ”low toxicity” (T value of 0 of 3; EC50, IC 50or LC50>100 mg/L). The environmental risk ratio (PEC/PNEC) for gadodiamide and ondansetron is ”Insignificant” (PEC/PNEC < 0.1) and neostigmine, mepivacaine, oxymetazoline, albuterol, and dexamthasone are considered ”Cannot Be Excluded” (no data for environmental risk ratio; Table 1).

For the other drugs amongst the top 80% most dispensed, (Table 1), the PBT index values ranged from 6 of 9 for ipratropium, 4 of 9 for albuterol, ketorolac, and metoprolol; and 2 of 9 for ibuprofen. Albuterol and ipratropium, ketorolac and metoprolol are ”very persistant” while ibuprofen is not. None are ”bioaccumulative” (B value 0 of 3). Ipratropium is ”very highly toxic” (EC50, IC 50or LC50< 1.0 mg/L), ibuprofen ”highly toxic” and albuterol, ketorolac and metoprolol are ”moderately toxic”. The environmental risk ratio for ibuprofen, ipratropium, ketorolac and metoprolol are ”Insignificant” while albuterol and prednisone are considered ”Cannot Be Excluded”.
Ecotoxicity of the Most Frequently Wasted and Discarded Drugs
Invertebrates
As depicted in Table 1, four drugs (dexamethasone, ibuprofen, neostigmine and nitroglycerine) are very hughly toxic to invertebrates (EC50, IC 50or LC50 values of < 1.0 mg/L). Dexamethasone has the greatest chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia of 0.05 ppm (or mg/L; 7 d EC50). Ibuprofen is extremely chronically toxic (28d EC50 of 0.0007 mg/L) to the crab (Carcinus) and very highly toxic (96hr EC50 of 0.4 mg/L) to zebra mussel (Dreisssena). Ibuprofen toxicity was variable from high to moderate (96 hr EC50, IC 50and LC50 of 1.7 mg/L to 22 mg/L) to Hydra. Neostigmine is very highly acutely toxic to Daphnia with a 24 hr EC50 of less than 1 mg/L. Nitroglycerine is predicted to be very highly toxic to Daphnia (EC50 of 0.0000156 mg/L, Topkat software program). Mepivacaine, metoprolol, neostigmine and prednisone are highly toxic (acute and chronic) to Daphniaor Hydrawith EC50 or LC50 values of from >1 mg/L to 10 mg/L. Metopropol is highly toxic to Ceriodaphnia (24 and 48 hr LC50 of >1 mg/L to < 10 mg/L). Metoprolol toxicity is variable, ranging from a low of 2.6 mg/L (24hr, 48hr EC50) for Daphnia; 8.8 mg/L (48hr LC50) for Ceriodaphnia and Hyalella; 45.3 mg/L (48hr EC50) for Ceriodaphnia; 64 – 76 mg/L (48hr EC50) for Daphnia; and to >100 mg/L (48hr EC50) for Daphnia, Hyalella and Thamnocephalus. Prednisone is chronically highly toxic to Ceriodaphnia (7 d IC 50>2.0 mg/L). Dexamethasone is moderately toxic to Brachionus (rotifer) and Thamnocephalus (fairy shrimp) with a 24 hr LC50 of 48 or 60 mg/L, respectively. Ibuprofen was moderately toxic to the feshwater snail Planorbis (48hr LC50 of 17 mg/L). Metoprolol was moderately lethal to Thamnocephalus after 24 hr of exposure (LC50 of 78 mg/L) but of low toxicity after only 1 hr (EC50>100 mg/L). Nitroglycerine is acutely and chronically toxic (EC50 or LC50>10 mg/L to < 100 mg/L) to Daphnia. Oxymetazoline, ondansetron and dexamethasone are also acutely toxic to Daphnia with EC50values (>10 mg/L to < 100 mg/L reported in the MSDS/SDS). Phenylephrine, the most wasted drug, is acutely toxic to Daphnia, with a predicted EC50 or LC50 of 58 mg/L. Prednisone was also toxic to Brachionus (24hr LC50 of 55 mg/L). Acetazolamide, albuterol, ipratropium, insulin and ketorolac are of low toxicity to Daphnia (EC50 or LC50 values >100 mg/L). Diatrizoate meglumine, gadodiamide, glycopyrrolate, iopamidol and nicardipine have no toxicity data available for aquatic invertebrates.
Fish
Acetazolamide is very high toxicity to fish (< 1 mg/L) with a value of 0.001 mg/L for 120hr LC83, but is predicted to be of low toxicity (LC50 value of >1000 mg/L, Ecosar, Aster, PNN and Neutral Organics QSAR computer programs). Ibuprofen is predicted to be very highly toxic to fish (LC50< 1 mg/L, Neutral Organics QSAR in the ECOSAR computer program). However, the 96 hr LC50 for ibuprofen was variable from moderately toxic (89 mg/L) for Oryzias to low toxicity (>100mg/L) for Lepomis. Mepivacaine, ondansetron are highly toxic to fish (EC50 or LC50values of < 10mg/L). Nitroglycerine is highly toxic to fish with a LC50 of 1.4 mg/L as reported by the MSDS/SDS and predicted by Neutral Organics QSAR (LC50 of 4.8 mg/L) but is essentially non-toxic (LC50>100 mg/L) as predicted by Aster, Ecosar, Oasis Forecast and PNN computer programs. Ketorolac, metoprolol, oxymetazoline and phenylephrine are essentially non toxic to fish with EC50 or LC50 values >100 mg/L, despite one value for metoprolol reported at 31 mg/L for a 72hr EC50. Albuterol, dexamethasone, diatrizoate meglumine, gadodiamide, glycopyrrolate, insulin, iopamidol, ipratropium, neostigmine and nicardipine have no ecotoxicity data available for fish as depicted in Table 1.
Other
Ondansetron is very highly toxic to green algae (Pseudokirchneriella) with a 24 hr IC 50of less than 1 mg/L (Table 1). Insulin is moderately toxic (EC50 10-100 mg/L) to algae (72 h EC50 of 19 to 33 mg/L). Ibuprofen had high to low toxicity values for algae and other organisms ranging from a high toxicity (7d EC50 of 1.0 mg/L) for the vascular plant duckweed (Lemna); moderate toxicity (5d EC50 of 40 mg/L) for the algae Skeletonema and bacteria Vibrio (15 min EC50 values of 11 to 19 mg/L) to low toxicity (96 h EC50 of >100 mg/L) for the algae Pseudokirchnerella and Desmodesmus (3d EC50). Ibuprofen was moderately toxic to African clawed frog Xenopus tadpoles 3 (96h EC50 of 40 mg/L and 57 mg/L). Mepivacaine is predicted to be highly toxic (EC50 or LC50 of 5.3 mg/L, Ecosar) to algae. Metoprolol was high to moderately toxic to Desmodesmus (3d EC50 of 7.3 mg/l; 48 h EC50 of 7.9 mg/L; and 24 h EC50 of 40 mg/L) or green algae (72 h ErC50 value of 58.3 mg/L); moderate (EC50 value of 14.5 mg/L) to low toxicity (30 min EC50 value of >100 mg/L) to Vibriobacteria; and low toxicity to Lemna (7 d EC50 value of >100 mg/L or >320 mg/L).Nitroglycerine is predicted to have moderate chronic toxicity (EC50 21 mg/L, Ecosar) and low acute toxicity EC50 or LC50>100 mg/L, Ecosar) to algae. Prednisone was moderately toxic to algae (Pseudokirchnerella with a 72h IC 50of 31 mg/L) while acetazolamide (Ecosar, acute and chronic EC50 or LC50>100 mg/L), dexamethasone (Pseudokirchnerella 72 h EC50>100 mg/L) and ketorolac (Chlorella EC50>1000 mg/L) had low toxicity to algae. Activated sludge toxicity was extremely low and recorded at >1000 mg/L for insulin and ondansetron. Albuterol, diatrizoate meglumine, gadodiamide, glycopyrrolate, iopamidol, ipratropium, neostigmine and nicardipine have no ecotoxicity data available for algae or other aquatic organisms.
Recommended Disposal
Incineration was recommended by the MSDS/SDS for dexamethasone, insulin, nicardipine and prednisone. Iopamidol is accompanied by a warning in the MSDS/SDS not to dispose in household garbage or into the sewer system. No method of disposal was recommended by the MSDS/SDS for 15 of the top wasted or dispensed pharmaceuticals (Table 1).
Metabolism and Excretion
As depicted in Table 2, all but 2 (insulin and nitroglycerine) of the “wasted”, discarded or dispensed pharmaceuticals were excreted as parent compound in the urine and or feces of human patients, at levels from 5 to 100% of the administered dose. Fourteen of these underwent metabolism in vivo but active metabolites were formed from only two (nitroglycerine and prednisone). Nicardipine, ondansetron and prednisone formed potentially reversible drug conjugates (predominantly glucuronides) which were excreted in the urine, feces or underwent enterohepatic recirculation (Table 2).
Discussion
The present communication found that over 56 kg of 84 drugs from 14 therapeutic classes were dispensed in two Albany, New York hospitals. Of this 56 kg, only 2.3 kg of drug (as active ingredient) worth in excess of $111,000 was discarded. Others have reported detectable levels of drug waste in effluents of healthcare facilities [16, 60, 74]. Sim et al. [16] assayed twenty-four (24) different drugs in Korean wastewater finding ug/L levels of pharmaceuticals in hospital effluent. Olivera et al. [71] measured 185 pharmaceutical and personal care products by liquid chromatography – mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) in hospital effluent and wastewater in Suffolk County, USA finding very low levels ranging from undetectable (most) to 1.4 ug/L for erythromycin.

In previous studies [71, 72], wasting of propofol, other injectable drugs, and controlled substances (CS) was generally higher (4.1%) at the same facilities as reported herein. For example; Mankes [71] found that 41 liters of propofol emulsion and other liquid injectable surgical drugs were wasted of 150 liters dispensed. Mankes and Silver [72] reported that 8.5 kg of CS were wasted of 38 kg dispensed and 2.3 kg wasted of 56 kg dispensed in the present study. This contrasts to much lower (1.7%) wasting of antibiotic/antimicrobial drugs (Ab), found to be 1.3 kg wasted of 77 kg dispensed [73]. This disparity between Ab wasting and other pharmaceuticals [71-74] may be due to the longstanding process of antibiotic stewardship [75].

Others [76] have concluded hospitals are not the main source of pharmaceutical waste in municipal sewage in Germany, with community use reported to be 70-75%, (on a defined daily dose or DDD basis). Application of the Pareto Principle (or 80-20 rule [77]) has been previously reported for propofol, controlled substances [71, 72] and other hospital processes [78-80]. For example, a process improvement team consisting of representatives from nursing, anesthesiology, and pharmacy could be charged with targeting the wasting of the top drugs as illustrated by “Lean-Six Sigma” [81]. Reduction in dispensing, sizes and strengths stocked, etc. could be enforced with a reduction in wasting [41, 71, 79].

In the present study, all but two of the wasted, discarded or dispensed drugs were excreted in whole or in part as active drug [18] or drug conjugates [3]. Kummerer [76] found that nearly 70% of drugs evaluated were excreted unchanged. We previously reported that injectable drugs [71], CS [72], or Ab [73] were metabolized in vivo or were highly biodegradable (e.g., propofol). In the case of Ab [73], the total drug discharged was representative of the total drug dispensed (77 kg) rather than just that which was wasted, thus complicating estimations of hospital discharge of drugs [82].

Others have assumed drug loads in hospital wastewater to be proportional to total dispensing [12] while Escher et al. [9] have advocated more complex computer simulations. In this report, Escher et al., [9] evaluated 100 drugs expected to occur in 2 hospitals’ wastewater. One was a 338 bed general hospital and the second a 211 bed psychiatric center. In the general hospital, the top-100 drugs dispensed totaled 1137 kg consumed and 777 kg excreted. X-ray contrast media was 58% of the excreted load, 19% from laxatives, 16% from antibiotics, and 8% from others.

As seen in our earlier studies, drug waste, although an overall average of 3%, was not uniform and varied from 0.2% (vasopressin) to as high as 57% (insulin). In previous studies, wasting of injectable surgical drugs varied from 12 to 48% of dispensed drug [71]; wasting of CS ranged from less than 0.1% to 49.5% of drug dispensed [72]; and wasting of Ab varied from 0.1% to 45% [73]. In the present study, the highest percentage of wasted drugs were not among those with the greatest absolute wasting (in grams). For example: insulin at 57.4% wasting accounted for only 140g of 2.3 kg wasted, while phenylephrine accounted for the most (329g) drug wasted but only 8.75% of the phenylephrine dispensed.

As noted, the costs of drug wasting in the present study exceeded $111,000 and were primarily due to seven of 46 pharmaceuticals (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, neostigmine, nitroglycerine, ondansetron, phenylephrine and tetracaine). Others [83-86] have found that costs of drug wasting can be significant, ranging from $185,000 for 543 surgical cases [83] up to $30 billion annually [87]. In an earlier study, Mankes [71], found eliminating larger vial sizes of propofol, by stocking only 20 mL size had a significant reduction in propofol waste. Others also have advocated: reductions in vial sizes [84, 86, 88]; mandating drug take back and reissue programs [84]; use of prefilled syringes for surgical cases [83]; use of sophisticated drug management software to increase reuse of anti-cancer drugs [85] or better managed short-stability and titratable products [89]. In any event, it is clear that small changes in pharmaceutical waste management can have a significant impact on pharmaceutical waste costs.
PBT, Environmental Risk Ratio and Ecotoxicity Analysis
As noted earlier, the PBT Index was developed in 2003 by the Stockholm County Council to rank the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals (http://www.janusinfo.se/Beslutsstod/Miljo-och-lakemedel/About-the-environment-and-pharmaceuticals). The PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity) and environmental risk ratio system of drug comparison [90] is used by European governments.
REACH -http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-dangersub/pri_substances.htm) [91] as well as adopted by one US State (Oregon) [92-95]. One of our objectives is to determine if such data provides the hospital environmental professional with a method of ranking damaging drug wastes.

Persistence (as determined by OECD Test 301) [96] is important when evaluating the environmental impact of a contaminant. In the present study, we found eight drugs were considered “not readily biodegradable” or highly persistent (3/3) while only one (ibuprofen) was rated “readily biodegradable” (0/3 for persistence) and thus would not be expected to be long lived in the environment. Similarly, bioaccumulation (OECD Tests 107 and 111) [97-98] is a function of amplification within the environment and is seen with increasing concentrations (generally Log KOW or the log oil/water partition coefficient). None of the top wasted / dispensed drugs in the present study were considered potentially bioaccumulative.

The REACH PBT toxicity designations are based upon OECD Tests 201, 202 and 203) [99-101]. Four drugs (ibuprofen, ipratropium, ondansetron and oxymetazoline) were “very high” or “high” toxicity. Five drugs were considered “moderate” or “low” toxicity. In contrast, the toxicity values derived from the laboratory test results for crustaceans (Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, Thamnocephalus, etc.), fish (Cyprinodon, Oryzias, Lepomis, etc.) and other (Pseudokirchneriella, Desmodesmus, Lemna, Xenopus, etc.) revealed that only 2 (neostigmine and ondansetron) were very highly toxic to Daphnia (neostigmine) or algae (ondansetron). Dexamethasone is very highly toxic to Ceriodaphnia (0.05 ppm or mg/L) after 7 days, while ibuprofen is very highly toxic to Dreissena (EC50 0.4 mg/L). Four drugs (ibuprofen, mepivacaine, nitroglycerine and ondansetron) are highly toxic to fish. Thus there appears to be poor correlation between the laboratory toxicity test results and the REACH PBT toxicity scoring. Recently, Mendoza et al. [102] analyzed 25 drugs and radiocontrast agents in effluents from a hospital. PBT and environmental risk values from the Stockholm County Council were presented. These values were not correlated to the results of the ecotoxicity reviews regardless of species. As noted in our previous communications for controlled substances and antimicrobial drugs [72-73], we recommend more complete laboratory derived aquatic toxicity data (e.g., EC50 or LC50 values for Daphnia, fish, algae and bacteria) be included in manufacturer MSDSs/SDSs for the most frequently wasted drugs, rather than an over reliance on PBT or the environmental risk ratio.

In general, toxicity values for pharmaceuticals are determined by laboratory testing or predicted by models. Some sources of toxicity values such as MSDSs/SDSs, Wikipharma, and literature reviews [59] present both lab test and predicted data. In some instances lab testing results are dissimilar and appear contradictory. For example, acute lab data results for Daphnia (magna) for ibuprofen range from 31 mg/L to 132.6 mg/L)[51, 103-105], an order of magnitude different. In other instances, lab data and predicted data can be dissimilar. Using ibuprofen as an example again, the acute laboratory toxicity result for fish (Oryzias) is 89 mg/L, while the predicted acute data for fish is 0.0318 mg/L (Neutral Organics QSAR in Ecosar), a difference of almost 2,800. These wide ranges can be problematic when applying a toxicity scale of < 1 mg/L to indicate that a pharmaceutical is very highly toxic, 1-10 mg/L as very toxic, 11-99 mg/L as moderately toxic, and >100 mg/L as not toxic. Pharmaceuticals in this paper other than ibuprofen that present these potential data interpretation issues include insulin, metoprolol and nitroglycerine. We recommend more complete laboratory derived aquatic toxicity data rather than relying solely upon modeled data.
Metabolism and Excretion
Excretion of drugs has been considered a major source of pharmaceuticals in wastewaters [30, 40]. Hospital effluents are recognized as major sources of drugs [2, 60, 74, 102]. For most of the drugs studied herein, the official (FDA) manufacturer label provided adequate insight into the urinary and fecal excretion of the drug and its metabolites. For the top drugs that were both wasted and dispensed, 18 were excreted in urine and feces, 3 (nicardipine, ondansetron and prednisone) formed drug conjugates, while 2 (insulin, nitroglycerine) were not excreted, in whole or in part.

As noted by others [30, 40], our data suggest that for these 18 pharmaceuticals, excretion from patients, with or without direct hospital wasting, would be a major source in hospital effluent. Unfortunately, little data are available in the open literature for wastewater concentrations of these 18 pharmaceuticals [12, 45, 82]. Albuterol levels varied from 0.08-0.28 ug/L in hospital wastewater systems from Suffolk County, New York [74] while an average of 23 ng/L (range of 3.7-110 ng/L) was reported by Bernot et al. [106]. Santos et al. [60] found dexamethasone levels in hospital effluents ranging from undetectable to 352 ng/L. Ibuprofen is commonly detected in hospital effluents at ng/L levels (119 to 7090) [13, 102], or at ug/L levels (3.11)[107]. Metoprolol was found at levels from 1.57 to 32.8 ug/L in Suffolk County, NY [74] to 11.4 to 37.8 ng/L [3] or 35.6 ng/L to 830 ng/L [102].
Disposal and Destruction
The traditional method for “left over” drug disposal is to squirt any remaining liquid drug into a waste receptacle, sink or toilet [27, 68, 108]. The first federal (US) guidance for consumer disposal of drugs, issued in 2007, recommended discarding them in the household trash [108]. US consumers have been offered scheduled national “Drug Take Back Days” by the US Drug Enforcement Administration where excess drugs may be dropped off with drug enforcement officials prior to the drugs being disposed of responsibly. In healthcare facilities, pills are usually crushed and mixed with water and flushed or put into sharps containers [109]. Excluding disposal in a sharps container [110], these procedures increase the likelihood that drugs will be released into the environment, as WWTP do not fully remove them [61, 62]. Recently, Phillips et al. [111] found septic systems in New York and New England contribute a wide variety of micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, to shoreline wells. In the present study, drugs were discarded into pharmaceutical waste containers which were then sorted and shipped via commercial waste transporter to a secure incineration facility.

Recommendations for disposal methods are confusing and conflicting [27, 31, 112]. In the present study, only 5 of the twenty frequently wasted or discarded drugs had disposal recommendations provided by the MSDSs/SDSs. Incineration was recommended for 4 drugs (dexamethasone, insulin, nicardipine and prednisone) and one drug (iopamidol) it is not to be disposed of in the trash nor in the sewage. The MSDS/SDS for the other fifteen drugs provide no guidance regarding disposal. Seehusen and Edwards [113] surveyed disposal of medication practices and found incineration to be the best disposal option currently available. In any event, clear and detailed disposal recommendations are needed and should be included in a manufacturer’s MSDS/SDS. This would provide guidance and clarity to healthcare environmental professionals and pharmacy staff alike in designing and implementing pharmaceutical waste programs. In the study reported herein, all residual drugs were disposed offsite, in a permitted hazardous waste incineration facility and appropriate documentation was maintained throughout.
Conclusions
Pharmaceutical wasting in healthcare facilities, represented by two hospitals in Albany, New York, USA, can be identified and quantified by drug class, individual drug and costs of wasting. The 80-20 rule is applied to the data to focus remediation efforts upon the drugs accounting for the greatest waste in weight and costs. Potential for ecological damage by wasted drug is assessed by using MSDS/SDS, WikiPhama and open literature data for ecotoxicity, drug metabolism and bioaccumulation. We find that information on drug ecotoxicity should be more readily available to pharmacists and healthcare environmental personnel in MSDS/SDS provided by drug suppliers. We also find that wasted drugs should be centrally collected for destruction by incineration and not disposed in sinks or toilets.
Acknowledgements
The technical assistance of Laurie DeWeerdt, BS and Peter Gorman, BS and the assistance of Union College interns Lindsey Walaski and Kelsey Powers in review of the literature is gratefully acknowledged. Supported in part by a US EPA grant X9-97256506-0 to RF Mankes.
Supplemental Data
Supplemental Table 1 summarizes the ecotoxicity data available for the other wasted, discarded or dispensed drugs. Supplemental Table 2 depicts the human pharmacokinetic data available for the other wasted, discarded or dispensed drugs.
Graphical Absract:
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