Research Article Open Access
Impact of Stigma on Survivor’s Productivity: Moderating Role of Perceived Organizational Support
Ali Hasan1*, Farhan Mirza2, Zaineb Khalid3, Nida Komal4 and Hira Yaqoob5
1*PhD Candidate and Lecturer GIFT University Gujranwala, Pakistan
2PhD Scholar and Lecturer University of Management Technology (UMT) Sialkot Campus, Pakistan
3BS Scholar Superior University Lahore, Pakistan
4BS Scholar Superior University Lahore, Pakistan
5BS Scholar Superior University Lahore, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: Ali Hasan, PhD Candidate and Lecturer GIFT University Gujranwala, Pakistan, E-mail: @
Received: March 4, 2019; Accepted: April 5, 2019; Published: April 13, 2019
Citation: Ali Hasan, Farhan M, Khalid Z, Komal N, Yaqoob H (2019) Impact of Stigma on Survivor’s Productivity: Moderating Role of Perceived Organizational Support. Int J Fam Busi Manag 3(1): 1-7.
The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between stigma and survivor’s productivity. Earlier studies show that stigma has a negative impact on survivor’s productivity. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine and provide satisfactory justification of relationship among stigma and organizational support on survivors’ productivity. Methodology of the study is quantitative with the survey as a main research strategy. 250 Questionnaire was distributed along with employees of Telecom industry of Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS regression and beta analysis. The findings suggest that there is negative relationship between stigma and survivor’s because stigma creates negative effects. But POS is moderating the negative relation of stigma and survivors. Future research could be conducted on the some other variables such as Training, Knowledge management, Procedural justice these can be studied during stigma on survivor’s productivity.

Key words: Stigma; perceived organizational support; survivor productivity;
Layoff has become an gradually more popular tool over the past few years in all over the world due to recession that are crucial for both the organization as well as the employees; Due to strong competition more and more organizations are moving towards fewer employees and the related work load is competently divided among the effective employees and latest technology, this from companies view is better to provide them with competitive advantages (Cheng et al, 2008)”. The impact of this apply on employees is great, as it makes it harder for them to work consistently in an organization that is following this procedure regularly due to recession and ever increasing competition. The question remaining is that either the protocol of downsizing is able to produce the desired result and increase the efficiency of the organizational operations or not, unfortunately there is no satisfactory explanation of this phenomenon. (Sowjanya, 2010). Due to Recession and competent technology the procedure of layoff effects the functioning ability of permanent employees significantly due to the insecurity arising among them as the temporary workers are laid off, this insecurity leads to decreased effectiveness and changes in attitude that directly or indirectly affects the performance of the permanent employees (Lewis, 2009). From a social viewpoint the effects of this layoff strategy is mostly negative, another negative impact of the layoff is the negative thoughts of the employees that survive the layoff. Therefore the prime focus of the organization must be to set up and continue a positive attitude from the layoff survivors towards the organizational operations, which allows them to be productive and contribute towards the betterment. The marked negative manifestations of the behavioral changes in the layoff survivors are decreased efficiency, increased absenteeism and decreased job satisfaction that in turn leads to lower performances and poor communicative process which affects the relationship with other employees, management and consumers [1]. On the other hand the effects are variable means they differ from individual to individual, for example, in some cases it decreases the level of commitment, important job anxiety and decreased innovative functioning.
Literature Review
Stigma and Survivor’s Productivity
One of the explanations of the process underlying the effects of time since last mass layoffs on employees that has been presented is that layoffs put into doubt the psychological contracts of employees with their organizations even when these employees are not directly affected [4]. A mass layoff will be perceived as a signal that the company does not uphold its share in the psychological contract anymore that is a mass layoff is likely to be perceived as a violation of the psychological contract [4]. Earlier research has hinted at the relationships between layoffs and psychological contract violate [4]. Besides the review of Data et al. (2010) explains that many studies on the individuallevel outcomes of downsizing have used a psychological contract outlook, but there have been no studies that have actually measured the relations of layoffs with perceptions of contract breach [4]. The current study aims to clarify the role of the psychological contract in employee responses to mass layoffs, and the relationships with consequent employee performance. More purposely, we investigate whether time since the last mass layoff is related to perceptions of psychological contract breach, and we consider the mediating role of job insecurity [4]. Downsizing indicates that an organization has sullied its psychological contract with its employees. Downsizing not only has a negative impact on its victims, it also influences survivor work outcomes during the post-downsizing period [6]. In these circumstances, few employees who are left with the organization are predictable to be highly committed and productive; the organization cannot pledge job security. The survivors think about it as breaking of the psychological contract [1]. Perceived violations of psychological contract have been publicized to prompt a number of attitudinal and behavioral responses that may diminish survivor motivation and performance [1]. The negative psychological impact of downsizing on survivors such as increase in levels of strain, anger, fear, anxiety, dejection can lead to decrease in the levels of teamwork and motivation at the workplace [1].

Presently a variety of classifications of stigma; the primal meaning was first and foremost founded upon the stigmatization system. The other thing, that is, conceal ability rotates around the amount of stigmas latency. Typically when the latency is far above the ground, the selection board can’t link the negative impacts of the stigma to the persons until the latency lesser and the stigma is perceptible (Dale al, 2012)

Psychologically the procedure of stigmatization is both at mindful and anesthetized level which is a part of the fundamental as well as developed sample in the human beings. Stigmatization is a practice that not simply special effects the workers that are directly or indirectly a segment of it but it also has evident significance on the depiction of the organization, a present case would be the Abercrombie’s and Fitch’s stigmatization put into practice in their hiring method Psychological conformity which is in stripe with stigma that is in your consciousness is an significant opinion in considerate work associations, and the explicable impact the build has on organizational result (Zhao et al, 2007). This is the origin of deviation of stigmatization scripts from customs to customs and business to business, the earlier researches organize the stigma with particular position to the isolated crowds persons fit in to, for example, the cultural minorities and disabilities, which is a fresh approach. The main and evident view and state to become aware of that stigma is not to be confounded with stereotype or disposition, in the face of the verity that these are very much unified and make a payment to stigmatization (Dovidio et al, 2001). Stigma is not to be sighted at the same time as a damaging cause as it is dependent upon the attitude of the spectator; the stigma that is predictable by the spectator might not of necessity be a stigma to the gather the pragmatic belongs to. Stigma is not to be combine communally with the frequent positive and critical measurement happening in the societal circle, The feeling model make search turns in the area of the awareness of analyze as he/she move toward diagonally an individual and start on categorize into optimistic or damaging thoughts and situation of mind is as well depends on the insignificant information that there mind are be full of. [Fig – 1]
Figure 1: Theoretical framework
Layoff and Survivor’s
Earlier studies indicated that layoff survivors usually show negative attitudes and behaviors – such as low performance, decreased affective attachment, diminished job security, negative fair-perception, and a high-turnover intention from a third-party perspective – and certain types of mistreatment can stimulate negative emotions that motivate third parties to seek justice toward their transgressors for perceived wrongdoings [6]. Survivors went during the layoff process with victims; they were directly influenced by the layoff, as well as by the mistreatment of their coworkers [12].The layoff is expected to form survivors’ frames of orientation (and adaptation levels) and subsequently affect their future judgments about whether an organization treats its members literally [12]. Survivor may deduce and fear that a related event would happen to them in the future. The result is a negative effect on survivors’ work attitudes and behaviors [12]. We examined how the communication patterns, attitudes, and performance of layoff survivors altered during the two-year period in which the downsizing occurred. In this study, we deliberate survivors’ communication networks, attitudes, and performance both before and after the downsizing process. Our analysis examined layoff survivors’ pre- and post-measures of communication interaction, work-related attitudes, and performance, with the goal of providing a look into how organizational downsizing influenced the survivors of the downsizing [13].Gaining a improved sympathetic of how layoff survivors navigate in a post-downsizing environment can give operators some insight into how downsizing affects a workplace both negatively and positively [13]. Moreover, this study also investigated the ways how organizations may improve the negative effects of mass layoffs on surviving employees [4]. As a result, our information of what directs to well-organized employees work has not set away swiftness with the use of employees in our worldwide economy (Ransbotham& Kane, 2011; Xiao, 2014). It’s common Layoff Survivors’ efficiency idea that when groups make improvement in the track of their aims, they frequently have a tendency to react self-confidently. One of the investigator optional that workers awareness far above the ground personal happiness recognized their objectives as being added important and are generally more possible to achieve success. Life happiness remains the side of interest for the investigators of physical condition related problems. Investigators open to the fundamentals to facilitate strength difficulty such the same as common nervousness insecurity directs to decreased yield in the place of work. Other investigators well-known that life happiness is grounds by prosperous psychological strength and disgraceful psychological healthiness set life dissatisfaction (Taming& Far, 2009). The organizations that providing services can attract and keep the reasonable resource by appointing and retaining workers (McShane & Glinow, 2005) who be able to provide the demands of the consumers. Workers preservation and output are critical matters argued in HRM and development. Workers in business include participated responsibility of talent and leaving maybe will have an important result taking place the implementation of the firms’ company policies as well as aims and might in the end be a base for turn down in effectiveness. Seeing that, worker protection was significant on the way to the honored development and achievement of the company (Fatt,& Heng, 2010). Verification is accessible during earlier studies so as to worker turnover have the economic as well as worrying penalties in support of the employees parting the firm and for the workers obtainable (survivor’s) in firm. Present is frequently additional job stress and bothered employment practices for the employees stay at the back in the firm (Proudfoot, Corr, Guest & Dunn, 2009). The reimbursement of worker protection comprises decrease the fixed and variable which can be direct indirect costs. Our study is most closely related to Frenette et al. (2011) that consider the impact of mass-layoff on the post-secondary conscription of employees. They discover that employees exaggerated by masslayoff actions are faintly extra liable to subsequently enroll in college compared to workers not affected by mass-layoff events [11].
Organizational support and Teamwork
Supervisors, in particular, can play an important role in shaping followers’ psychological reactions during critical events and losing one’s job is a clear example of such an event. Yet, because lay-offs have significant consequences for individual victims and organizations at large, there is a need to gain a better understanding of supervisors’ role in the formation of layoff victims’ perceptions of organizational fairness and support [7]. We conducted a two-wave study that tests our hypothesis concerning the relationships between supervisory justice, top management justice, and perceived organizational support (POS) in the context of a major organizational lay-off. The goals of this study are twofold. First, we investigate the impact of lowerlevel supervisors on lay-off victims’ perceptionsoftmanagemen tjusticeandPOSduringanactuallay-offprocess–ahighly relevant organizational justice context that is often very difficult study. Second, wettest theoretical ideas derived from multifocal justice models (e.g., Lavelle, Rupp, &Bruckner, 2007) and the social identity theory of leadership (Hogg, 2001; Turner&Hassam, 2001), to provide a theoretical explanation for the presence (or absence) of cross-foci effects found in previous studies [7]. Previous studies underscore the importance of front-line supervisors in the formation of POS. Indeed, meta-analytic findings revealed a weighted correlation of .51 between perceived supervisory support and POS, and a correlation of .55 between supervisory interpersonal justice and POS (Rhoades & Wiesenberger, 2002) [7]. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, research has not examined time-lagged relationships between supervisory justice and POS using longitudinal designs and has not investigated employee POS during an actual lay-off process [7]. Prior studies across occupations and organizations provide evidence for the high internal reliability and unidimensionality of the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS; Wiesenberger et al., 1986; Rhoades & Wiesenberger, 2002). The majority of studies on POS use a short form developed from the 17 highest loading items in the SPOS (Wiesenberger et al., 1986). Stress appraisal can reduce commitment to change including employees’ behavioral support for an organization’s change initiatives (Herskovits & Meyer, 2002) (Neves, Mesdaghinia, Eisenberger, & Wickham, 2017). POS facilitates a favorable appraisal of the situation by increasing trust in the organization, optimism about the future, and a sense of equity. In addition, due to the socio emotional and tangible resources that shape POS, it can be considered as a resource that buffers against then negative effects of excessive job demands created by time sizing. Therefore, POS can lessen the negative effects of time sizing proximity mentioned above (Neves, Mesdaghinia, Eisenberger, & Wickham, 2017). When POS was low (but not high), time sizing proximity had negative in direct relationships with employees’ desire to support the downsizing strategy and their engagement in extra-role performance (Neves, Mesdaghinia, Eisenberger, & Wickham, 2017). Organizations should consistently cultivate POS among employees, not only during time sizing but also in times of stability. There are a variety of demonstrated ways to foster POS organization-wide, including paying careful attention to organizational fairness, and using such HR practices as giving autonomy in solving problems, providing tangible resources and socio emotional support, affording supervisory support, and strengthening social networks (Neves, Mesdaghinia, Eisenberger, & Wickham, 2017). In addition, we examine the relationship of POS with specific facets of job satisfaction. We expect that job satisfaction will mediate the relationship between POS and organizational outcomes, thus providing researchers and practitioners with more insight into the effects of POS. This research helps us better understand how POS affects individual employee attitudes related to specific aspects of work (Mayes, Finney, Johnson, Shen, & Yi, 2016). Employees with high POS perceive that their organization values their work and cares about them (Mayes, Finney, Johnson, Shen, & Yi, 2016). It is possible that training may only affect POS when linked with career development or when it is clear how training will affect success on the job (Mayes, Finney, Johnson, Shen, & Yi, 2016). One researcher noted that ‘employees in organizations with numerous opportunities for training may not see those opportunities as conveying the organization’s support and commitment to them personally because the opportunity and benefit of training are widely available’ .This is why meta-analytic research has revealed only a moderate relationship between training and POS (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002)(Mayes, Finney, Johnson, Shen, & Yi, 2016). Drawing upon their arguments (Dulac et al., 2008; Robinson, 1996), it can be expected that when managers offer support to their employees, the latter will be less likely to be negatively affected by contract breach, and thus will uphold performance levels (López, Matthijs, W., I., & Mladinic, 2016).

The lasting employees (survivors) in a firm have indirect price allegation counting concentrated confidence, stress on the employees, price of knowledge and the societal resources failure (Dess & Shaw, 2001) furthermore employees turnover had harmful consequence happening the lasting workers that comprise disturbance of cluster process of socialization and enlarged inner clashes (North, Rasmussen, Hughes & Finlayson 2005). Different other studies exposed that the teams of service area firms (educational institutes like school, colleges, and universities) who were extremely dedicated continuous their taking part with their existing institutions and they as well place far above the ground intensity of hard work and showed high presentation for their society and institute (Chughtai& Zafar, 2006).POS may also contribute to a favorable appraisal of the situation by protecting employees’ sense of equity. Employees with high POS more willingly accept the organization’s description that emphasizes the require to time size in order to survive through tough times without having to resort to more severe employment actions such as layoffs. Importantly, the employees will not interpret time sizing as the organization’s challenge to increase profit or to guard managers at the employees’ expense. Additional, POS signals that the organization will attempt to delight the employees more positively in the future when the financial circumstances get better (Neves, Mesdaghinia, & Wickham, Timesizing Proximity and Perceived Organizational, 2017). Layoff Survivors’ Efficiency and output Raymond and Flannery (2002) appraised a feasible loom to improve efficiency and output by bearing in mind the employee’s psychological agreement by means of the firm. That is the individuals and also teams expectations concerning their services. The person behind established that an responsiveness of worker or teams psychological agreements can support administrator and managers in improving individuals, teams, and also organization efficiency and output ultimately improved their productivity as well employee’s worth of existence at work. Bhatti and Qureshi (2007) confirmed that the teams of workers contribution may affect group and employee’s job contentment, team’s efficiency and output, commitment of teams with firm and these all could formulate comparative edge for the businesses. For this cause the writers experienced the connection between Teamwork team’s contribution, job fulfillment, efficiency and output means productivity of the organizations and loyalty of teams. The authors exposed an important and encouraging connection appearance that foundation of workers employment happiness and managerial loyalty is inside purpose of mutually distributive and ceremonial fairness, and so as to maintain a considerable unconstructive affiliation to proceeds plan. The authors recommended that it was very important for the existing employees or Layoff Survivors’ competence and productivity business to offer training and culture to their supervisor as a basis of organizational fairness. The reason of this study is to provide an improved considerate of the following belongings of laid-off and downsize of workers on survivors. So there is strong team bond there effect can be stronger due to understanding of the employees.

H1: Stigma has negative impact on survivor’s productivity.
H2: POS will moderate the relationship between stigma and survivor’s productivity.
Philosophy of the research is positivism, approach is deductive moreover research strategy is survey .Sampling have been done using non probability sampling .Data collection method was Questionnaire, Different analysis have been done like reliability, normality, regression, descriptive correlation. And tool is SPSS 20 (Kidwell et al., 2011).
Target Population
Target population was Telecom sector of Pakistan and like Egyptian telecom Warid, Mobilink, PCO Indigo Ufone, Zong, Telenor, WorldCall Wireless Warid Telecom (Pakistan), WaridPCO, PTCL etc these companies have done layoff in last few only those businesses, which are at present functioning in Pakistan, are targeted. Sampling frame enclosed the population from telecom companies from Islamabad Lahore Gujranwala the companies are selected on the convenient basis the reason of that selection is mostly layoff decisions are applied in telecom sector of Pakistan.
Sample Size
Sample is from Telecom companies .There are total 310 questionnaires distributed in employees of telecom sector which is acknowledged on convenient sampling. Out of 310 survey questionnaires 268 questionnaires were utilizable for analysis function (Evrard et al., 2006). As well, according to (Hair, 2010) who suggested a sample amount of at least 200 however not more than 400. Sampling Technique: In this study, Purposive and random sampling was used Researcher had chosen this sampling method for the reason that sampling frame was existed. All employees have the same possibility of being elected for survey, and cover all the audience with having equal chance.
Instrument Development
Questionnaire was as a tool as this tool was frequently used in the most of the previous research studies. Which was very closely relevant to this study? Such as regarding Survivors Productivity and layoff questionnaire adopted from (Malik, 2013) and stigma questionnaire adapted from (Sowjanya, 2010) furthermore perceived organizational justice from.
General Reliability of estimation scales utilized to direct this overview poll was 0.710. As to the individual dependability of the every variable utilized as a part of this examination study differed from 0.675 to 0.785. This portrays every variable has inner consistency among things used to quantify that specific variable (Field, 2006). Along these lines, the overview survey is dependable for looking at Survivors profitability Cutback and Stigma. [Table-1]
Table 1:

All variables

Cronbach’s Alpha

Variables items




Survivor’s productivity



Perceived organizational support



Overall variables



Results & Discussion
Regression analysis was used to test the both hypothesis of the research. The outcome indicates that stigma has significant negative impact on the survival productivity. The below presented table presents the values of the R square 0.098. This explicate is that 9.7% of the variation in the survivors productivity preserve to be explain by variation(s) in the IV Independent variable. [Table-2]

This obtains the equation form Y = (a + b1X 1 +b2X 2 - b 3X 3) basically a is constant, b is the beta that is degree of influence to the independent variable the Xs are the independent variables. Although X1, X2 and X3 and so on are the independent variables with beta coefficients influence the dependent variable which is Y. [Table-3]

Beta value is positive (.089) , which demonstrates a moderate positive significant impact on (SP) Survivors productivity, although the (Sig. < .05).The beta value .152 point out the degree of influence of POS has on variations in the (SP) Survivors productivity. The value beta for (POS) perceived organizational support is.028 which demonstrates positive significant impact on (SP) Survivors productivity, while the (Sig. < .05). The beta value .333 signified the degree of influence of POS has on variations in the (SP) Survivors productivity.

Table Summary of Results of Hypothesis Testing [Table-4]
Table 2:Model summary



R square

Adjusted R square

Std. error of the estimate






Table 3:




Unstandardized coefficient

Standardized coefficient






Std. Error















Perceived organizational support






  1. Dependent variable: SP
Table 4:



Stigma has negative impact on survivor’s productivity.


POS will moderate the relationship between stigma and survivor’s productivity.


The stigma has significant destructive impact on survivor’s productivity. Employees who survived, consequent to an compulsory layoff leads distrust and bunking off, higher pressure, which includes their job superiority and productivity (Balkin, 2000).The layoff is not permanently receiver for as a substance of element, reducing employees not always marks optimistic for the administration’s (Jones, 1984) ; (Rush ,1998). It might be helpful in short-run equally long-term belongings might be risky for the survivors, for the reason that extreme of the period it possibly will be linked by way of survivors physiological condition, comprising work anxiety, unfairness, monetary disaster, and panic (Karake, 1998). The primary hypothesis of this investigation job is that stigma has critical authority on survivor’s productivity. The reason at the back is that crucial and unbiased laid-off policy is additional potential to improved stability performance appraisal and performance of survivor (Rush, 1998). Now a day’s firms are focusing to diminish their employees rather than to improve the quality of work from survivor, Means layoff policy making is important but how to deal with survivors are also very important. The theory of research is that favoritism which is in the mind of employees eventually this anxiety, danger, threat will convert into low efficiency (Fiske, 2004). Categorization on the base of any error and cognitive unfairness usually happened in organization decision-making. Employees usually unwillingly classifies employees and stereotypes workers with others beside the source of environment, class, and sex (Karake, 1998).In accession to this, employees clear these kinds of biasness from frequent external basis and information (Henry and Jennings, 2004). This distribution commence with a usual classification, commonly by the means of caste, sex, and civilization (Henry and Jennings, 2004). Decisions which made either depends on assortment or nor but employees unwillingly take it as a discrimination and predictable that culturally discriminatory workers were necessary as dissimilarity to fewer prejudiced (Kittur& Kraut, 2008). Thus, civilization, caste, sex these types of discriminations in layoff decisions might reason damaging result on survivors productivity.
Research will explore the relation of biased decisions during layoffs can cause serious consequences. After workers are predictable for layoff, you should accurately build up a system data and conduct fair system. The layoff is not lastingly receiver for as a substance of factor, plummeting employees not always marks positive for the administration’s (Rush, 1998). It might be cooperative in short-run conversely long-term possessions might be unsafe for the survivors, for the reason that extreme of the era it perhaps will be connected by way of survivors physiological condition, comprising work anxiety, unfairness, monetary tragedy, and fear (Karake, 1998). The main Hypothesis of this investigation job is that stigma has negative influence on survivor’s productivity. The equanimity at the back this that eventual and unbiased layoff strategy is more possible to improved constancy performance appraisal and performance of survivors (Jones, 1984) During layoff employees consider strain that predictable as stigma and have negative relation with survivor’s productivity. (Kim Sherman, 2012),”Laid-off strategies related to Survivors’ productivity Study explores an ability-based, Research has reputable the consequence of excelling the stigma created against specific ethnicity group, or background (Chun Guo and Giacobbe-Miller, 2012).
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