Research Article Open Access
Comparison of Community Similarity and Biodiversity Indexes of Water Birds between Miangaran Natural Wetland and Naseri Man Made Lagoon in winter 2016
Behrouz Behrouzi-Rad
Retired from Department of Environment, Wildlife Ecology specialist and Ornithologist, Theran, Iran.
*Corresponding author: Behrouz Behrouzi-Rad, Retired from Department of Environment, Wildlife Ecology specialist and Ornithologist, Theran,Iran E-mail: @
Received: January 18, 2019; Accepted: February 06, 2019; Published: February 19, 2019
Citation: Behrouz Behrouzi R (2019) Comparison of Community Similarity and Biodiversity Indexes of Water Birds between Miangaran Natural Wetland and Naseri Man Made Lagoon in winter 2016. Int J Marine Biol Res 4(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.15226/24754706/4/1/00130
Abstract
Comparison of similarity of community and biodiversity indices of water birds between Natural Miangaran Wetland (NMW) and Naseri Man Made Lagoon (NMML) carried out by direct counting in winter 2016. In the (NMW), 32 species of waterbirds with a population of 8162 individuals and 30 species in the (NMML) with a population of 28595 individuals recorded. In the (NMML), the most frequent was Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber with 18677 individuals and the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea with the least number of frequent. In the (NMW), Common Teal Anas creca was the most frequent species with 2569 individuals and the least frequent were Botaurus stellaris with 2 individuals. In the (NMW), four species of water birds, Little Gull Larus minutus, Re-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus, Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus, Terek Sandpiper Tringa cinereus, and the White-tailed Lapwing Chettusia leucurus were absent. There were no Yellow-legged Gull larus cachinans, Greylag Goose Anser anser, Redwattled Lapwing Hoplopterus indicus, Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius, White Stork Ciconia ciconia, Bittern Botaurus stellaris, and Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinelus in the (NMML). The number of water birds of (NMML) was 3.5 times the number of (NMW) water birds. The highest index of Margalf species diversity in (NMW) and (NMML) were 3.655 and 3.065, Simpson index were 0.885 and 0.558, respectively, and the index of species evenness were 0.375 and 0.189 respectively. Gamma diversity was 32 in (NMW) and 30 (NMML) in the winter 2016. Euclidean difference between water birds of two wetlands was 1343.62 and the similarity of the water bird’s community was 53.58.

Keywords: Water birds population; Species diversity; Miangaran Wetland; Naseri lagoon;
Introduction
The history of water birds studies in the world’s wetlands reaches a century, but the flourishing of these studies dates back to the year 1942, when the International Wetland and Waterfowl Research Bureau (IWRB) established for the conservation and management of wetlands and water birds [1] In Iran, counting and studies of water birds in wetlands have been initiated since 1960 by the Department of Environment of Iran. At that time, Iran had 250 wetlands with an area of about 2.5 million hectares [2] which now all natural wetlands are either destructed or altered ecological [3] of the 250 wetlands, 24 wetlands with an area of 1481147 hectares have been registered at the Ramsar Convention list and are of universal importance [4] In the world until May 2016, 2240 wetlands have been registered in the list of the Ramsar Conventions in 169 countries with an area of 215240112 hectares [5]. In the Middle East, 391 areas are designated as Important Bird Area (IBA) [6,7] 105 regions, that is, about 26% of them are in Iran [8]. These habitats cover about 20% of the total of Iran. Of the 105 regions, 40 are wetlands, but the Naseri lagoon is not included in the list of Important Bird Area [5]. Since the survival of many rare and endangered species of water birds are dependent on the wetlands [9] the existence of clean wetlands will be necessary for the birds to achieve contamination and bioavailability. In recent years, Iranian wetlands, including Khuzestan province wetlands, have suffered severe drought and pollution and reduced the area, volume and depth of water and their ecological functions [2]. Naseri lagoon after the construction of Mirzakochek Khan and Amir Kabir sugar fields has accumulated their wastewater and since it has a vast area (12,000 hectares) and a depth of more than 150 centimeters, it has created a new water habitat for water birds in Khuzestan. The purpose of this study was to compare the water birds among Miangaran natural wetlands and Naseri Man-made lagoon to answer the question of whether can man-made wetlands replace natural wetlands. From similar studies of water birds in the world’s on the wetlands, one can: Andrews and Williams, [10], Amat and Green, [11], Paszkowski and Tone, [12], Wilhm and Dorris, [13], Zakaria and Rajpar, [14], Declerck and Meester, [15], Marques, et al. [16], Rutschke, [17], Ranter, [18] and Hussien, [19]. In Iran, the study can also be done by Behrouzi-Rad, [20, 21, 22, 23, 24], Behbash, et al. [25], Karimipour, [26] and Yazdani, [27]. The aim of this study was to compare populations and biodiversity indexes, to determine the similarity and differences between abundance, species diversity and population composition of water birds among Miangharan natural wetland and Naseri Man Made Lagoon.
Materials and Methods
Study Area
The Naseri Lagoon is located 35 km far from Khoramshahr city with a geographical position of 30o 38’ 5” N, 48o7’ 59”E with an approximate area of 12,000 hectares. The artificial Naseri lagoon is formed from Amir Kabir and Mirza Kuchak Khan wastes water at western part of Karoun River in the south of Ahwaz in 1999 figure 1. In spite of being young, vegetation of the phramites australis has been created in different parts of the lagoon, and it is habitat for waterbirds. The Izeh wetland or the Miangaran in the north of the city of Izeh in Khuzestan province is located 31°51’ to 31°55’ 57”N 49°50’ to 49o54’ 56”E. Its area is 6000 hectares [2]. The minimum depth of the wetland is 0.7 m and the maximum depth of the wetland is 3 m in the course of a flood [2], figure 1 and 2. According to the classification of the Ramsar Convention, [4] and Scott and Frazier, [28], the Miangaran or Izeh wetland is permanent freshwater wetland and Naseri lagoon is Man Made Lagoon figure 2. The distance between two wetland is about 200 km.
Figure 1:The route of counting of birds in Miangaran wetland and Naseri Lagoon (Google Earth, 2016)
Figure 2:Natural features of Miangaran wetland and Naseri lagoon (internet, 2016)
Estimation of bird’s population
For 3 months, they were referred to Naseri lagoon and Miangaran wetlands monthly, and waterbirds were identified by a binocular (40x10 Zeiss) and 60x15 telescopes and counted by total count method. This methodology is used by [29] in January each year to count waterbirds in the wetlands of the world. In Iran, since 1961, the Department of Environment of Iran has used this method for counting waterbirds in wetlands. The counting of water birds of the Naseri wetland was carried out on January 18, February 20 and March 19, and the counting of water birds in the Miangaran wetland on January 19, February 21 and 20 March in 2016. All timings were taken from 8am to 16pm to create a timed similarity in the counting of birds in Miangran and Naseri Lagoon. In the Naseri wetland, I walked and stand on the lagoon wall on round of the wetland every 2-3 km, and counted the water birds by binocular and telescope. In the Miangaran wetland, by moving around the wetland, every 2-3 kilometers standing and birds counted by binocular and a telescope figure 1 Two kilometers distance were selected due to the strength of the field of view of the binocular and the telescope and the lack of repeat counting of water birds. It took about 8 hours a day to walk around the wetlands and count the birds. Due to the large distance between two wetlands (200 Km), there was no possibility to count water birds in one day in both wetlands. That’s why the birds are counted in two days. The biodiversity indicators measured by Past software [30]. The biodiversity indicators calculated in this study were Shanon-Winier, Simpson dominance, Margalef and Mehinick richness, evenness , α, β and γ diversity. The Birds Protection Status has been used by the Department of Environment law [31] and IUCN criteria [32] to state the conservation status. Alpha, Beta and Gamma diversity have been used by Whitaker, [33]: Alpha diversity is in-habitat diversity. In fact, the same kind of species found in a community. Beta diversity is a variation between the habitats and shows the difference in species composition and diversity variations from one habitat to another. Gamma Diversity the richness of a range of habitats is called in a geographic region.
Results
During 3 months, 36774 individuals of 37 species of water birds (swimmer water birds 20 species, and 17 species of waders and wading birds) were identified and counted in two wetlands table 1 figure 6. The most species and number in the Naseri lagoon on February were 4811 individuals belonging to 30 species, and in Naseri lagoon, the highest number was recorded in March of the 28 species and the highest population was recorded in February 1355 individuals table 1 and table 2. Of the protected species, Greater Flamingo was counted with a population of 18577 individuals in Naseri lagoon and 88 individuals in the Miangaran wetland. The world endangered species Botaurus stellaris (Vu) with population of 2 individuals were counted in the Miangaran wetland. This species was not observed in Naseri lagoon. Alpha diversity of swimmer water birds waders and wading birds and all water birds in Miangaran and Naseri wetlands has been shown in figures 3, 4 and 5 respectively in winters 2016.
Table 1: Population and species number of water birds in Miangaran and Naseri wetlands

Birds

Miangaran

Naseri

species Number

Population

Species Number

Population

January

February

March

January

February

March

January

February

March

January

February

March

Swimmer water birds

12

17

15

1574

4069

1251

15

15

16

7694

12929

6204

Waders and wading birds

11

15

13

122

742

404

11

10

12

352

926

480

Total number

23

32

228

1696

4811

1655

26

25

28

8046

13855

6684

Total number in winter 2016

32

 

8162

 

30

 

28595

 

Table 2:Number of water birds in Miangaran and Naseri in winter 2016

Species

Miangaran

Naseri

January

February

March

Total

January

February

March

Total

Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus

7

124

18

149

28

6

5

39

Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis

140

277

11

428

109

231

21

361

Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo

28

448

20

496

11

180

53

244

Grey Heron Ardea cinerea

5

195

103

303

7

21

12

40

Purple Heron Ardeae purpurea

0

2

2

4

0

0

1

1

Great White Heron Cosmerodius  albus

1

13

5

19

31

5

5

41

Little Egret Egretta garzetta

11

122

98

231

20

18

14

52

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis

12

53

15

80

12

23

4

39

Eurasian Bittern Botaurus stellaris

0

2

0

2

0

0

0

0

Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus

0

2

1

3

0

0

0

0

White Stork Ciconia ciconia

27

93

20

140

0

0

0

0

Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber

0

53

35

88

5252

8756

4569

18577

Greylag Goose Anser anser

0

52

50

102

0

0

0

0

Shelduck Tadorna tadorna

0

23

0

23

25

45

8

78

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos

12

137

453

602

355

353

130

838

Common Teal Anas crecca

657

1456

456

2569

554

676

151

1381

Pochard Aythya ferina

456

786

45

1287

67

167

12

246

Shoveler Anas clyptea

0

33

60

93

34

45

0

79

Pintail Anas acuta

3

99

12

114

5

30

54

89

Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus

17

30

24

71

52

65

35

152

Red-wattled Lapwing Hoplopterus indicus

0

7

0

7

0

0

0

0

White-tailed Lapwing Chettusia  leucurus

0

0

0

0

4

0

12

16

Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius

20

150

100

270

0

0

0

0

Redshank Tringa totanus

12

32

11

55

14

37

13

64

Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis

3

6

8

17

83

296

112

491

Terek Sandpiper Tringa cinereus

0

0

0

0

106

386

175

667

Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus

0

0

0

0

23

13

0

36

Sanderling Calidris alba

12

22

8

42

14

67

90

171

Dunlin Calidris alpina

2

13

9

24

9

8

7

24

Slender-billed Gull Larus genei

1

23

11

35

495

1045

1035

2575

Little Gull Larus minutus

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

4

Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinans

17

84

26

127

0

0

0

0

Common Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus

0

10

0

10

346

480

72

898

Common Tern Sterna hirundo

17

38

10

65

0

0

8

8

Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

3

Eurasian Coot Fulica atra

180

360

30

570

345

850

85

1280

Common Morohen Gallinula chloropus

56

76

14

146

45

52

4

101

Total

1696

4811

1655

8162

8044

13855

6684

28598

Diversity and composition of the bird’s species
Alpha-diversity was calculated in Naseri and Miangaran wetlands by past software are shown in figures 3, 4 and 5. Alpha diversity waders and wading birds were 32 in winter in 2016 in Miangaran and 30 in Naseri lagoon. Beta diversity between Miangaran and Naseri lagoon was 0.37 in winter in 2016, 0.21 on January, 0.10 on February and 0.22 on March. Birds’ community of tow wetlands divided to tow group:

1- Aquatic swimmer water birds that are Semi-totypalmet. Of this group, 6904 individuals recorded in the Miangaran and 26837 individuals in Naseri. Anatidae species had the largest number with 4807 individuals in the Miangaran wetland. Common Teal was the most frequent with 2568 individuals. The Greater Flamingo in the Naseri wetland had the highest frequency with 18577 individuals table 2. Generally, the number of Miangaran wetland species was more than the Nasiri (32 > 30), but the number of swimmer water birds in the Naseri lagoon were more than the Miangaran (28595 > 8162), of which 18577 individuals belong to Greater Flamingo. Alpha diversity of waders and wading birds were more than swimmer water birds figures 3 and 4.
Figure 3:Alpha diversity of swimmer water birds in Miangaran and Nasiri
Figure 4:Alpha Diversity of waders and wading birds in the Miangaran and Naseri Lagoon
Figure 5:Alpha diversity of water birds in Miangaran and Naseri wetlands in winter 2016
Figure 6:Number of water birds in Naseri and Miangaran in winter 2016
2. Waders and wading birds are half-dipped in their fingers and do not swim in the water, but easily flock on muddy beaches on the shores of the wetlands, and feed on bent hoses, aquatic insects, and other aquatic animals [34]. From this group1258 individuals counted in the Miangaran and 1758 individuals in the Naseri lagoon in winter in 2016. There were 639 individuals from Ardeidae species in Miangaran, and1585 individual’s waders in Naseri lagoon. Water birds population was 28595 individuals in the winter belonged to 30 species in the Naseri lagoon and 8162 individuals belonged to 32 species in Miangaran. The population of water birds in Naseri lagoon was 3.5 times the size of the birds of the Miangaran wetland, but the number of species was 2 species less than the Miangaran.

The Simpson species diversity index in Naseri lagoon was found to be the most similar index in March (0.858) and in January (0.775) and at least in March (0.507) and maximum in February (0.585), in the Miangaran wetland maximum in February (0.858) Jakard in both wetlands in February was 0.448 and 0.717 respectively, the highest evenness in Naseri was 0.492 in March and 0.242 in Miangaran wetland in January 2016. The remaining biodiversity indexes of two wetlands are shown in table 3.The percentage of similarity and Euclidean difference between the water birds of the two wetlands of Miangaran and Naseri in the winter in 2016 is shown in table 4. The Euclidean difference between the two wetlands was (1342.62) and the highest Euclidean difference among the two birds’ communities was (1132.38) and the lowest Euclidean difference between the months of February and March were (62.51). The percentage of similarity between the two birds’ communities in winter was 53.58, the highest percentage of similarity was found between the two birds community in January and March (96.33) and the lowest percentage of similarity between February and March (79.52). The correlation coefficient of the water bird’s community among two wetlands in winter is shown in table 5. There was a significant difference between the water birds’ community of Miangaran wetland in January with the community of February and March in Naseri lagoon at the level of 1% (0.985 and 0.998). There was a significant difference between the correlation coefficient of the waders and wading birds communities in February and March (0.541 and 0.954) with the waders and wading bird’s community in March, at a level of 1%. The Kendall statistical test showed that there was a significant correlation among the community of Naseri lagoon birds and the Miangaran birds’ community in the February and March. Also, the statistical test of Spearman showed that there was a significant correlation between the community of Naseri lagoon birds and the Miangaran birds’ community in February table 6.
Table 3: Diversity indexes of water birds in Miangaran and Naseri in winter 2016

Bio-indices

Miangaran

Naseri

Jan

Feb

March

Jan

Feb

March

Dominance-D

0.242

0.142

0.166

0.44

0.415

0.492

Simpson_1-D

0.757

0.858

0.833

0.559

0.585

0.507

Shannon_H

1.853

2.487

2.34

1.483

1.558

1.271

Evenness_e^H/S

0.277

0.375

0.37

0.169

0.189

0.127

Brillouin

1.825

2.469

2.301

1.47

1.552

1.261

Menhininck

0.558

0.46

0.688

0.289

0.212

0.342

Margalef

2.959

3.655

3.643

2.78

2.517

3.065

Equitability_J

0.591

0.717

0.702

0.455

0.484

0.381

Fisher_alpha

2.762

4.601

4.788

3.339

2.958

3.738

Berger-Parker

0.387

0.302

0.275

0.652

0.632

0.682

α Diversity

23

32

28

26

25

28

β Diversity

Dec-Jan

Jan-Mar

Dec-Mar

Dec-Jan

Jan-Mar

Dec-Mar

0.162

0.055

0.098

0.019

0.132

0.111

γ Diversity

32

30

Table 4: Similarity and Euclidian difference of water birds in Miangaran and Naseri in winter 2016

 

 

 

 

Similarity %

Miangaran

 

Month

Wetlands

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Feb

100

Jan

 

 

 

 

 

March

100

94.14

Feb

 

 

Naseri

 

Total

100

92.41

97.84

March

Miangaran

 

 

Jan

100

95.84

91.33

96.84

Total

 

 

Feb

100

61.59

61.26

55.79

60.16

Jan

 

March

100

82.39

60.65

59.15

56.38

59.12

Feb

 

100

79.59

96.23

60.84

61.28

78.55

60.11

March

Naseri

86.26

72.15

86.40

58.53

59.24

54.08

57.93

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euclidian Difference

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miangaran

Jan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Feb

0

Jan

 

 

 

 

 

March

0

4239.52

Feb

 

 

Naseri

 

Total

0

1359.20

2888.42

March

Miangaran

 

 

Jan

0

1109.72

281.00

3995.11

Total

 

 

Feb

0

936.42

1735.24

916.49

4502.17

Jan

 

March

0

1138.32

1343.55

2445.64

1114.35

3331.03

Feb

 

0

562.41

586.33

1020.26

2055.12

835.61

4915.42

March

Naseri

533.16

112.15

1115.26

1343.62

2442.80

51116,85

5328.35

Total

 

Table 5: Correlation of water birds in Miangaran and Naseri in winter 2016(by Pearson Test)

 

Correlations

Wetland name

 

 

 

Miangaran

 

 

Naseri

 

 

 

 

January

February

March

January

February

March

 

January

Pearson Correlation

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Species No.

37

 

 

 

 

 

Miangaran

February

Pearson  Correlation

0.626**

1

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Species No.

37

37

 

 

 

 

 

March

Pearson Correlation

0.541**

0.954**

1

 

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

000

000

 

 

 

 

 

Species No.

37

37

37

 

 

 

 

January

Pearson Correlation

004/0

038/0

049/0-

1

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.492

0.412

0.386

 

 

 

 

Species No.

37

37

37

37

 

 

 

February

Pearson Correlation

0.041

0.230

0.130

0.989** **

1

 

Naseri

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.405

0.446

0.470

000

 

 

 

Species No.

37

37

37

37

37

 

 

March

Pearson Correlation

0.830

0.390

0.280

0.985 **

0.998 **

1

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.313

0.410

0.435  

000

000

 

 

Species No.

37

37

37

37

37

37

 

**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).

 

 

 

**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).
Table 6: Correlation of water birds in Miangaran and Naseri in winter 2016 (by Kennedale and Spearman Test)

Correlation

                                                             Miangaran                                                                                           Naseri

 

 

 

Jan.

Feb

Mar.

Jan.

Feb

Mar.

Test

Kendall's

Miangaran

 

 

 

 

 

Jan

Correlation Coefficient

1

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0

 

 

 

 

 

N

37

 

 

 

 

 

Feb.

Correlation Coefficient

0.682**

1

 

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0

0

 

 

 

 

N

37

37

 

 

 

 

Mar.

Correlation Coefficient

0.507**

0.642**

1

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0

0

0

 

 

 

N

37

37

37

 

 

 

Jan

Correlation Coefficient

0.128

0.168

0.187

1

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.144

0.079

0.066

0

 

 

N

37

37

37

37

 

 

Feb.

Correlation Coefficient

0.196

0.246*

0.246

0.701**

1

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.053

0.021

0.025

0

0

 

N

37

37

37

37

37

 

Mar.

Correlation Coefficient

0.186

0.210*

0.182

0.596**

0.797

1

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.062

0.040

0 072/0

0

0

0

N

37

37

37

37

37

37

 

Test
Spearman's

 

Miangaran

 

 

 

Jan

Correlation Coefficient

1

0.851**

 

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0

0

 

 

 

 

N

37

37

 

 

 

 

Feb.

Correlation Coefficient

0.851**

1

 

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0

0

 

 

 

 

N

37

37

 

 

 

 

Mar.

Correlation Coefficient

0.614**

0.798**

1

 

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0

0

0

 

 

 

N

37

37

37

 

 

 

Jan

Correlation Coefficient

0.165

0.238

0.245

1

 

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.164

0.078

0.072

0

 

 

N

37

37

37

37

 

 

Feb.

Correlation Coefficient

0.276*

0.351*

0.295

0.840**

1

 

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.049

0.017

0.038

0

0

 

N

37

37

37

37

37

 

Mar.

Correlation Coefficient

0.258

0.291*

0.236

0.751**

  0.928**

1

Sig. (1-tailed)

0.061

0.040

0.080

0

0

0

N

37

37

37

37

37

37

**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).
Discussion
The Miangaran is located 3 km far from the city of Izeh and is a natural wetland. Water supply sources are surface waters and waste water from the city of Izeh. Its area is 6000 hectares [2,28]. The Naseri lagoon has been formed for about 3 decades and covers an area of 12,000 hectares. It is located 17 km far from Khorramshahr city [3,21]. Since the formation of Naseri lagoon, it has chosen as a wintering habitat by water birds table 2. In 2007, 194464 individuals of 29 species of water birds were counted [25]. This number increased to 28595 individuals and 30 species in 2016, while the number of water birds in the Miangaran in 2007 was 46581 of 44 species and in 2016 it decreased to 8135 individuals of 32 species. Two species of water birds were present in both lagoons. The Common Tern population in Miangaran was 8 times greater than the Nasiri Lagoon (8 < 65). The Bridled Tern was not seen in the Miangaran, but 3 individuals counted in the Naseri lagoon. Because it often lives on the island or sea coasts, coastal wetlands or near the Persian Gulf [34], the population of 7 species of Anatidae in the Miangaran and Naseri were 4790 and 2711 respectively (1.7 times). The water physico-chemical parameters of Naseri lagoon do not permit the presence and of a large variety of plankton [25] Grey Lag Goose feed in addition to water filtration in grass around wetlands in rangelands of wheat grasses. There is not a grass around the Naseri lagoon due to the salinity of the land. The Waders in the Naseri lagoon were more than Miangaran (1758 >1268). This was due to the presence of a large, damp ground of water near the Naseri lagoon, which led to the attraction of these birds to the lagoon. The waders feed on the bent hoses on beaches of the wetland or on wet muddy grounds [14]. Of the 13 species of herons in Iran, six species were counted in the Miangaran with a population of 637 individuals and four species with a population of 173 individuals in Nasseri. The herons are species that stand on the margin of water and wait for the food and catch a fish or other aquatic animals [34]. These conditions are provided on the margins of the Miangaran wetlands, but the conditions of the Naseri lagoon due to the uniform wall and up to 3 meters are not suitable for fishing. Biodiversity indexes of water birds of Miangaran wetlands were more than the Naseri lagoon table 3. The reason is the low population of water birds in the Miangaran and more species in it. The biodiversity indicators depend on the population and number of species. The dominance index in the Naseri wetland was more than the Miangaran. This is due to the presence of the Greater Flamingo (18577 individuals versus 88 individuals). The evenness of the Naseri water birds was more than Miangaran in every three months (on January, 0.277 > 0.1679, on February (0.375 > 0.1779) and on March (0.370 > 0.127) table 3. The evenness is related to the distribution of the population among the number of species, and the distribution of the species of waterbirds in the Miangaran is more balanced than the Nasser. There was a difference in the composition of the population of the species and the families of water birds in the two wetlands. These differences appear to be due to the increased security in the Naseri lagoon, its larger size and easy food (due to waste water from the Naseri lagoon, it has a lower quality than the Miangaran wetland, and as a result, aquatic animals have less mobility, especially fish larvae are easier to catch). The highest diversity of Simpson species in the Miangaran was more than Simpson species diversity in Naseri lagoon (0.858 > 0.585). Shannon-winner diversity index was higher in Miangaran wetland than Naseri wetland (2.487 > 1.558). Evenness index of Naseri lagoon was more than Miangaran (0.717 > 0.487) table 3. These differences are due to the presence of more water bird species in the Miangaran, and the history of the presence of birds in this wetland dating back to the formation of the Naseri lagoon. Migratory waterbirds usually prefer to return to previously known habitats. This will continue as long as the previous wintering habitats persist [11] this is true of the Miangaran wetland waterbirds. At least the similarity between the waterbirds in two wetlands in February (56.38) and the maximum similarity between March and February (78.58) are the highest table 4. The data of tables 1 and 2, biodiversity indicators table 3, and Euclidean similarity and difference table 4 indicate the difference between the numbers of water birds in the two wetlands. The maximum similarity among the two wetland water birds was 53.58 table 4. The maximum Euclidean difference between January and March (4915.42) and the minimum Euclidean difference between birds in January and February (98.14) and maximum Euclidean difference in total waterbirds were 1343.62 table 4. These differences are due to the biological conditions of the two wetlands where Naseri was formed from the accumulation of cane wastewater, but the Miangaran is natural marsh. Spearman test showed that the correlation coefficient in March and February was 92.8 table 5. Kendall’s test showed that the highest correlation coefficient between two wetland birds was in January and February (0.701) table 6. In a similar study by Behrouzi-Rad, [8], the difference between the water birds of the two natural Bazangan Lake and Shahid Yaghoobi Dam Reservoir in Khorasan Razavi province is expressed. But, the number, and diversity of water birds in the natural Bazangan Lake was higher than the Shahid Yaghoobi Dam reservoir, while the study found that the number of water birds in the wetland made up of cane sugar (Naseri lagoon) is higher. One of the reasons for this difference can be the physical and chemical properties of the Miangaran and the Nasser lagoon. Of course, the quality of waste water is not the same with natural water. On the other hand, Low security (due to the presence of fishermen and Hunters) and the small size of the Miangaran (6000 < 12000) have caused to have waterbirds population less than the Naseri lagoon. In a similar study published in 2012 in the Miangaran wetland [20] showed the density and diversity of waterbirds in the polluted area of the Miangaran wetland is less than that of the natural part. The results of previous studies confirm the information obtained from these studies, which may be due to inappropriate conditions of the Miangaran wetlands in 2016 compared to 2012, or the dehydration conditions of other wetlands of Khuzestan province caused the water birds, especially Greater Flamingos gather in the Naseri lagoon. In a similar study Declerck, et al. [15], the extent and isolation of wetlands are effective in the diversity and number of water birds and in smaller wetlands, the number, and diversity of birds is lower than in larger wetlands. Their results confirm the results of this study. Area of the Nasiri lagoon is 12,000 hectares and the area of the Miangaran wetland is 6,000 hectares. Studies by Kloskowski, et al. [1], confirmed the difference between artificial and natural wetland water birds, which is similar to the results of this study. Information from this study and similar studies show that artificial wetlands can support natural wetlands in difficult conditions, but cannot replace them. Especially wetlands that consist of wastewater or sewage accumulation. These wetlands should be investigated in terms of water quality and microbial contamination because of the possibility of transferring contaminations from waterbirds from this lagoon to natural wetlands. To clarify this situation, microorganisms, especially pathogenic microorganisms, are necessary in Naseri wetland.
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