Research Article Openaccess
The relationship between job design and nurses’ satisfaction
Ahlam A. Al-Maabadi Rn1, Olfat A. Salem2* and Fatma M. Baddar3
1King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2Department of Nursing Administration and Education, College of Nursing, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Egypt, Menofia University
4Nursing Administration and Education Department, College of Nursing - King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt
*Corresponding author:Dr. Olfat A. Salem, Nursing Administration and Education Department College of Nursing, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdomof Saudi Arabia; E-mail: @
Received: October 6, 2018; Accepted: October 29, 2018; Published: November 12, 2018
Citation:Salemm OA, Ahlam A, Fatma MB et al. (2018) The relationship between job design and nurses’ satisfaction. SOJ Nur Health Care 4(2): 1-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15226/2471-6529/4/2/00146
Abstract
Background: Job design has major effects on job satisfaction: positive or negative effects. Job designs usually consider the motivational factor which can lead to higher job satisfaction through increasing job involvement or it can lead to lower job satisfaction through increased training time and higher stress levels.

Methods: The study was conducted in the University hospital and Ministry of Health [MOH] hospital. A Cross-sectional descriptive correlation design with a self-reporting questionnaire was used to obtain data from a sample of 500 nurses; then the data was collected using Job Analysis and Retention Study” [ JARS], a questionnaire that was developed by Betty Rambur [ 2005] [21].

Results: The findings of the present study revealed that there was a weak positive relationship between job design and job satisfaction.

Conclusion: The aim of this current study is to investigate the relationship between job design and job satisfaction among nurses working in two different healthcare sectors. According to the findings of this study, when nurses are satisfied with their jobs, have a good job design and are involved in their job, they show a positive attitude about their jobs.

Key Words: Job Design, job satisfaction, job analysis, job involvement
Background
Job design and its effects on staff satisfaction is not a new issue in research. In any organization, jobs are designed according to established procedures that are arranged by experts in the respective job type in that organization. These procedures help save time, effort, and improve the quality of output as well as increase the staff satisfaction and decrease staff turnover. After all of the work is designed, employees acquire a feeling of task identity and task significance and are supplied with a variety of skills, autonomy, and feedback that could increase staff motivations and job satisfaction [1].

Task identity and Task autonomy have an important role in retaining nursing staff [2]. Job design should encourage the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization as well as recognition of the needs of those who perform work. The objective of job design is to integrate the needs of the employee with the needs of the organization [3].The positive effects of motivational job design include increasing job satisfaction, increasing job involvement, and decreasing absenteeism among employees. While the negative effects include higher training time, higher incidence of errors and higher levels of stress [4].

Job satisfaction, particularly in nursing, is also a critical challenge for healthcare organizations; as labor costs are high and shortages are common, nurses’ job satisfaction decreases. Nursing job satisfaction has been identified as a strong influence on the performance of nurses, decreasing the cost, and affecting the quality of patient care, If nurses’ job satisfaction decreases, the likelihood of them leaving their jobs would increase [5]. Moreover, satisfied employees show more productivity, commitment and creativity [6]. Dissatisfaction with work can lead to reduced job performance, decreased productivity, and turnover among staff [5]. Job satisfaction is an important variable that can explain the turnover rates among employees [7]

Nursing shortage is a critical problem in Saudi Arabia that could negatively affect the quality of care provided to the patients. However, nursing shortage is continuing to grow with increased demand for nursing staff and increased turnover rate. Recently, the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia [ SA] [8] is in shortage of about 170,000 nurses. So it is important to improve retention rate through increasing job satisfaction, proper job designs, good management and retaining experienced registered nurses.

Hospitals in Saudi Arabia have many factors which are affecting job satisfaction among nurses. These factors include shifts, long working hours, shortage of staff due to employee turnovers, improper delegation of duties, and yearly cancellation of the contracts of expatriates which raises job insecurity.

Investigating the relationship between job designs and job satisfaction could have a positive effect on minimizing nursing shortage and declining turnover rates which provoke the improvement of the quality of care provided to the patient.

Al-Ahmadi studied Job satisfaction of nurses in SA and found that there were relationships between job satisfaction and many personal factors such as age, marital status, nationality and years of experience. Moreover, nurses in Ministry of Health Hospitals in Riyadh [ MOH] were moderately satisfied. Dissatisfaction is caused by low salaries and different salary scales across hospitals in different governmental sectors [9].

According to Ambrose et al [10], Garg and Rastogi assert that jobs that are well designed have a positive effect on job satisfaction and quality of employee’s performance. Morris and Venkatesh [11] stated that job performance was positively affected by feedback.

Oghojafor and Adebakin carried out a study to examine the effect of job design on job satisfaction among doctors and nurses in selected hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria [1]. The result revealed that there is a significant relationship between job design and job satisfaction. Hadi and Adil [12] investigated job characteristics as predictors of work motivation and job satisfaction of nurse managers, the result revealed that all job characteristics were found to be significant and positively correlated to intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction whereas the major predictor of extrinsic motivation was feedback. Hadi & Adil [12], Samah & Saad [13] indicated that motivation, satisfaction, and effectiveness were contributed by job characteristics.

A study [14] that examined job design and job satisfaction among transplant nurses found that transplant nurses were generally satisfied with their job. In addition, Ali and Aroosiya [15], studied the effect of job design on employees performance in the school of Kalmunai Zone in Sri Lanka; they found a positive relationship between job design and employees performance. Lin, Yeh, and Lin [16] examined the effect of job characteristics on job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies in Taiwan. Results showed that community pharmacists had more job enrichment and job satisfaction and reported low intention to leave their jobs than pharmacists who are working in hospital and clinic.

Anseel and Lievens [17], examined the relationship between feedback environment and job satisfaction among employees of a governmental service for employment and vocational training. The result revealed that feedback environment is positively correlated with job satisfaction. Millette and Gagne [18], examined the effect of job characteristics on volunteer motivation, satisfaction and intent to leave. The result showed that job characteristics were associated with volunteers’ autonomous motivation, satisfaction, and performance. Moreover, motivation was a mediator in the relationship between job characteristics and satisfaction. Ali and Zia-ur-Rehman examined the role of job satisfaction as a mediator in measuring the effect of job design on employee performance through a job characteristics model which has five dimensions of [ skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback] [19]. The result showed a positive correlation between job design and employee performance. Furthermore, Job satisfaction had a positive influence on employee’s performance. Appropriate designed jobs and roles have an important role in improving employee’s performance [20].
Background summary
Job designs highly consider job satisfaction and targets to increase it reducing turnovers. Positive job designs increase employees’ motivation, job satisfaction, and job involvement. Positive job designs also provoke achieving the organization’s goals. With that in mind, job satisfaction is a major factor in nursing. The absence of job satisfaction is caused by several factors and has a lot of negative effects. This problem is present in Saudi Arabia with factors like shifts, long working hours, shortage of staff due to employee turnovers, improper delegation of duties, and yearly cancellation of the contracts of expatriates which raises job insecurity. These factors contribute to the increased shortage of nurses in the nation. In an attempt to solve this issue several researches have been done regarding the relationship between job designs and job satisfaction.
Research and Methodology
Research design
A Cross-sectional descriptive correlational design with a selfreporting questionnaire was used in this study.
Setting
The study was conducted in the University hospital and Ministry of Health [ MOH] hospital. University hospital in Jeddah Was founded in1976 which started with 36 beds, now the capacity of the hospital is 895 beds. On the other hand, MOH Hospital was founded in1980. It has a total of 612 beds.
Sample
Quota sampling technique was decided to be used to determine the number of subjects to be included from every single department/ unit in each building in the selected hospital.

The sample size was estimated using a sample size calculator. With a population of 1250 nurses in both hospitals, the sample size was computed to be 500 subjects. And it took 6weeks to collect the data from the subjects. The inclusion criteria were nurses from those providing direct patient care or occupying managerial positions employed in the hospital for at least one year and current full-time work status on inpatient nursing units, can read and write in English languageand who are willing to participate in the study. The reason for choosing nurses who are working currently in their setting for not less than one year was that nurses will be familiar with the work environment, policies and procedures of work.
Data collection tool
Job Analysis and Retention Study” [JARS] questionnaire that developed by Betty Rambur [2005]

was used in this study to investigate the relationships between job design, and job satisfaction among Saudi nurses [21].

The questionnaire includes demographic data about the study’s subjects namely; Number of years employed as a nurse, Number of years employed in the current organization, Number of years employed in the current position, age, sex, educational level, pattern of working hours, number of working hour /week, and working setting.

14 statements measures job design. Participants responded on a 7-point Likert scale ( ranged from very accurate 7) to very inaccurate [1] with respect to their current work.

Evaluating Nurses job satisfaction with their current position through 21 questions that assessed how satisfied one was with one’s current position, on a 7- point Likert scale (ranged from extremely satisfied [ 7] To extremely dissatisfied [1] ).

The reliability of the tool for the Job design part is 0.899.and for the Job satisfaction part is 0.948.
Methods of Data Collection
Official written approval to conduct the study was taken from the administration and research/ethical committee in selected settings, as well as the administrative personnel at the target hospitals. The official permission from the tools’ authors also was taken to use the questionnaire in collecting the data for the current study.

The process of data collection took 6 weeks. The total of 600 questionnaires were sent to the hospital and manually distributed by the researcher. Approximately 500 questionnaires were returned with a response rate of83.3 %.
Ethical considerations
Ethical codes of conduct are to be strictly adhered to at all stages of the study.

Regarding to ethical issues pertaining to participants’ consent to participate, have sufficient information regarding the research and have the power to withdraw from the study at any stage, in this study a written cover letter verifying the purpose of the study, the type of data that would be collected, and insurance of the anonymity and confidentiality of the subject was attached in each questionnaire. Following them is an informed consent that confirms the participants’ understanding of the information in the cover letter and signing the consent was considered as accepting the participation.
Results
More than one half (51%) of participants were working at University Hospital and 245 (49%) were working at MOH Hospital., 460 (92%) were females, while 40 (8%) only were males. The majority of nurses were therefore females. This could be explained by the fact that the nursing profession in SA is characterized as a female dominated workforce.

The finding for nurses’ age indicate that majority of nurses 188 (37.6%) aged between 25 and 29, while 138 (27.6%) aged between 30 and 34, 82(16.4%) between 35 and 39, 53 (10.6%) between 40 and 44, 22

(4.4%) between 45 and 49 and only 17 (3.4%) were more than 50.

Table [1] presents the mean and the standard deviation of job design Score of the Sample. The items that got the highest means were: “ job requires you to work closely with other people”, “Results of your work likely to significantly affect the lives and well-being of other people”, “The competence of my supervisor in making decision”, and “Job requires you to do many different things at work, using a variety of your skills and talents”(M=5.26 + 1/837, 5.32 + 1.717, 3.69 + 0.92, and 4.92 + 1.837 respectively). On the other hand, the majority of the sample had less mean in regarding job design score with little deference. A Comparison between Nurses’ mean of job design score at University Hospital and MOH. Nurses at University Hospital had a statistically significant higher mean total job design score than nurses at MOH (P = 0.070). In most of job design items, Nurses at University Hospital had statistically significant higher mean job design score than nurses at MOH hospital” Job requires you to work closely with other people (either “clients,” or people in related jobs in your own organization)”, “ Job permits you to decide on your own how to go about doing the work”, “ Job requires you to do many different things at work, using a variety of your skills and talents”, “Job itself provides you with information about your work performance? That is, does the actual work itself provide clues about how well you are doing – aside from any “feedback” co-workers or supervisors may provide” P = 0.102, P = 0.560, P = .869, P = 0.986 respectively.[Table 1]

Table (2) shows a Comparison between Nurses’ mean of general satisfaction score at University Hospital and MOH Hospital. Nurses at MOH Hospital had statistically significant higher mean total satisfaction score than nurses at University Hospital (P = 0.000). In most of the satisfaction items of Nurses at MOH Hospital had a statistically significant higher mean satisfaction score than nurses at University Hospital. There were no statistically significant differences between the nurses’ satisfaction in the two hospitals regarding the following items: “The amount of job security I have,” “ The amount of pay I receive,””The people I talk to and work,” “The mission and vision of the organization where I work” with P = 0.044, P = 0.156, P = 0.436, P = 0.096 respectively. [Table 2]
Table 1: Comparison between Nurses’ Mean of job design (1) Score of University Hospital and MOH Hospital

No.

Statement

University Hospital

MOH Hospital

P

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

1

Job requires you to work closely with other people (either “clients,” or people in related jobs in your own organization).

5.54

1.733

4.97

1.901

0.102

2

Job permits you to decide on your own how to go about doing the work.

4.35

1.563

4.15

1.524

0.560

3

Job involves you doing a “whole” and “identifiable piece of work”.  That is, is the job a complete piece of work that has an obvious beginning and end? Or is it only a small part of the overall piece of work, which is finished by other people or by automatic machines?

4.30

1.676

4.29

1.454

0.007*

4

Job requires you to do many different things at work, using a variety of your skills and talents.

5.15

1.603

4.77

1.624

0.869

5

Results of your work likely to significantly affect the lives and well-being of other people.

5.60

1.579

5.02

1.806

0.021*

6

Managers or co-workers let you know how well you are doing on your job.

4.60

1.728

4.44

1.687

0.021*

7

Job that provides you with information about your work performance? That is, does the actual work itself provide clues about how well you are doing – aside from any “feedback” co-workers or supervisors may provide.

4.64

1.708

4.57

1.635

0.986

 

Total

34.15

8.690

32.09

9.810

0.070*

Table 2: Comparison between Nurses Mean of nurses’ General Satisfaction Score at University Hospital and MOH Hospital

 

 

University Hospital

MOH Hospital

P

No.

Statement

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

1

The amount of job security I have.

3.84

1.742

4.05

1.604

.044

2

The amount of pay I receive.

3.01

1.665

3.95

1.542

.156

3

The amount of personal growth and development I get in doing my job.

4.15

1.624

4.23

1.368

.000*

4

The people I talk to and work with.

4.64

1.531

4.53

1.464

.436

5

The degree of respect and fair treatment I receive from my boss.

4.40

1.747

4.33

1.568

.005*

6

The feeling of worthwhile accomplishment I get from doing my job.

4.44

1.588

4.44

1.377

.001*

7

The amount of support and guidance I receive from my supervisor.

4.26

1.791

4.47

1.511

.001*

8

The degree to which I am fairly paid for what I contribute to this organization.

3.73

1.718

4.20

1.429

.000*

9

The amount of independent thought and action I can exercise in my job.

4.22

1.577

4.25

1.400

.013*

10

How secure things look for me in the future of this organization.

3.91

1.679

4.04

1.403

.001*

11

The amount of fringe benefits I receive.

3.13

1.674

3.81

1.462

.001*

12

The amount of challenge in my job.

4.40

1.589

4.42

1.373

.028*

13

The overall quality of the supervision I receive in my work.

4.43

1.646

4.42

1.408

.006*

14

Promotion opportunities in this organization.

3.58

1.632

4.02

1.509

.013*

15

The mission and vision of the organization where I work.

4.76

1.684

4.59

1.514

.096

16

The amount of daily stress on the job.

3.02

1.988

3.87

1.704

.000*

17

The physical demands of my job.

3.30

1.952

3.89

1.690

.000*

18

The support for continuing education in my organization.

4.24

1.787

4.02

1.513

.000*

19

The amount of flexibility I have in my hours of work.

3.61

1.789

3.86

1.442

.000*

20

The attention paid to career development.

3.72

1.781

3.93

1.465

.000*

21

Mentoring.

3.75

1.686

4.08

1.394

.000*

22

Total

67.20

19.460

71.51

18.671

.000*

Also, Table (3) presents Comparison between Nurses’ mean of job design [2] score at University Hospital and MOH Hospital. Nurses at University Hospital had statistically significant higher mean total job design score than nurses at MOH Hospital (P = 0.150). In most of the job design items, Nurses at University Hospital had a statistically significant higher mean job design score than nurses at MOH Hospital”

While, there were no statistically significant differences between the Nurses’ mean of job design in the two hospitals regarding the following items; Just doing the work required by the job provides many chances for me to figure out how well I am doing”, “ Job can be done adequately by a person working alone – without talking or checking with other people”, “ Supervisors and co-workers on this job almost never give me any “feedback” about how well I am doing in my work”, “ Job denies me any chance to use my personal initiative or judgment in carrying out the work”, “ Job gives me considerable opportunity for independence and freedom in how I do the work” P = 0.559, P = 0.967, P = 0.986, P = 0.735, P = 0.692 respectively. [Table 3]
Table 3: Job design (b) mean & Standard deviation according to the hospital

No.

Statement

University Hospital

MOH Hospital

p

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

1

Job requires me to use a number of complex or high-level skills.

5.50

1.567

4.69

1.768

0.003*

2

Job requires a lot of cooperative work with other people.

5.87

1.487

5.17

1.777

0.000*

3

The job is arranged so that I do not have the chance to do an entire piece of work from beginning to end.

4.51

1.844

4.12

1.697

0.079*

4

Just doing the work required by the job provides many chances for me to figure out how well I am doing.

4.87

1.581

4.51

1.567

0.559

5

Job is quite simple and repetitive.

3.18

1.934

3.82

1.732

0.002*

6

Job can be done adequately by a person working alone – without talking or checking with other people.

2.22

1.733

2.97

1.693

0.967

7

Supervisors and co-workers on this job almost never give me any “feedback” about how well I am doing in my work.

3.42

1.846

3.73

1.672

0.986

8

This job is one where a lot of other people can be affected by how well the work gets done.

5.06

1.702

4.73

1.625

0.010*

9

Job denies me any chance to use my personal initiative or judgment in carrying out the work.

3.67

1.795

3.65

1.669

0.735

10

Supervisors often let me know how well they think I am performing the job.

3.95

1.811

4.54

1.572

0.122*

11

The job provides me the chance to completely finish the pieces of work I begin.

4.29

1.830

4.07

1.661

0.036*

12

Job itself provides very few clues about whether or not I am performing well.

4.11

1.725

4.07

1.661

0.005*

13

Job gives me a considerable opportunity for independence and freedom in how I do the work.

4.13

1.819

4.42

1.637

0.692

14

Job itself is not very significant or important in the broader scheme of things.

3.15

1.845

3.36

1.691

0.113*

 

Total

57.94

13.715

58.05

14.661

0.150

Figure [1] shows that the majority of the nurses at both hospitals 296 (59.2%) were had a low satisfaction, while 195(39%) had moderate satisfaction and only 9 (1.8%) had high satisfaction. The result regarding both hospitals shows a low satisfaction rate. [Figure 1]

Figure [2] shows that there is a weak positive relationship between job design and job satisfaction. [Figure 2]
Fegure 1: Distribution of Nurses according to their level of satisfaction
Fegure 2: Correlation between Nurses’ total satisfaction score and total job design score of the sample
Discussion
The major finding of the study revealed that nurses at MOH Hospital had statistically significant higher mean total satisfaction score than nurses at University Hospital. On the other hand the nurses at University Hospital had statistically significant higher mean total job design score than nurses at MOH Hospital. Moreover that the majority of the nurses at both hospitals were had a low satisfaction and weak positive relationship between job design and job satisfaction.

Human Resource is the backbone for the success in any organization. Since the last two decades, Organizations are putting a major focus on the issues like employee satisfaction and job design, performance evaluation and other human resource functions in order to keep the employees loyal to the organization. With increasing competition in the markets, issues of human resource management become more vital for the management as well as for the researchers.

In today’s era, achieving the target is not enough for the organizations but they are more focused on the employee satisfaction as well. The term job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude towards his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds a positive attitude towards the job, while an unsatisfied employee holds a negative attitude about work. As satisfaction of the employee is the key step to sustain the employee and keep him/her loyal to the organization. [22]

There are different variables which are considered in order to measure the employee satisfaction in an organization. However, this current study aimed to examine the relationship between job design, and job satisfaction among nursing personnel in Saudi Arabia.

Parvin (2011) stated the purpose of job design is to increase the level of job satisfaction which shall ultimately cause the good performance of the employee. Job design may include job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment [23]. According to Nancy &. Morse (1997) “Satisfaction refers to the level of fulfillment of one’s needs, wants and desire [24].

In general, the findings of the present study revealed that there was a weak positive relationship between job design (p= 0.115) and job satisfaction (p=065) The various psychological literatures on employee motivation contains many claims that changes in job design can be expected to produce better employee job performance and job satisfaction [25]. This study finding is consistent with the view of Zareen,Razzaq and Mujtaba ( 2013) who found that when employees get involved and are well oriented with the job design they become highly motivated to take active part in the achievement of organizational objectives and therefore the employees performance will increase which affect the outcomes positively, increase their level of satisfaction, which in turn, raises the level of their intention to stay in their job[ 26].This finding also is in accordance with the result of Mbah, & Ikemefuna, (2012) study showed that when job satisfaction increased, employee intention to stay in their job will increase[27]. Lai et al. (2008) showed that nurses who intended to leave their jobs reported being less satisfied than others[28]. In the same context, Kovner, et al (2009) found that nurses with high job satisfaction were a significant positive direct relationship with job design because a major role of job design is improving the quality of working life of the employee. In some organizations, significant improvements to the quality of working life could occur when such features as job design, job enlargement, and job enrichment are put into practice and the employee’s adjustment with the changes may result in his satisfaction with the job [29] .

In the same line, a study conducted about the effect of Job Design on Employee Satisfaction, the result concluded a strong positive relationship between job design and job satisfaction. Which mean both variables move in the same direction that good job design bring more job satisfaction and bad job design bring job dissatisfaction for the employee? [22].

The finding of this study illustrated a statistically significant difference regarding nurses’ job design between the two study settings; Nurses at University Hospital had statistically significant higher mean total job design score than nurses at MOH hospital (P = 0.013). This finding was expected, might be attributed to differences in the workplace environments and Quality of work life between the two study settings health sectors. In this concern, Hussain and Saleem (2014) reported that the effective working environment, Quality of Work Life improve the voluntary involvements of employees, individual development opportunities, sense of authority, a better understanding of interrelationships which lead to employees’ job satisfaction, [30]. Effective Job design measures of the degree to which the employee is involved in his tasks and assignments [26].

In this respect, Bates( 2004) claimed that an effective job design brings the involvement of an employee in work-related activities which clearly forecasts employee output, departmental productivity and organizational success[31].

Furthermore, Ali and Zia-ur-Rehman (2014) found a positive correlation between job design and employee performance and Job satisfaction which had a positive influence on employee’s performance[32]. Achiaa,(2012) reported the appropriate designed jobs and roles have an important role in improving employee’s performance and satisfaction [33].

Zareen, Razzaq, and Mujtaba (2013) found when employees get involved and are well oriented with the job design they become highly motivated to take an active part in the achievement of organizational objectives and therefore the employees’ performance will increase which affect the outcomes positively [26].

The findings reveal that nurses at MOH hospital had statistically significant higher mean total satisfaction score than nurses at University Hospital (P = 0.012). In most of the satisfaction items of nurses at MOH Hospital had statistically significant higher mean satisfaction score than nurses at University Hospital. There were no statistically significant differences between the nurses’ satisfaction in the two hospitals regarding the following items: “The amount of job security I have “,” The amount of pay I receive “, “The people I talk to and work with “, “The mission and vision of the organization where I work”.

P = (0.044), P = (0.156), P = (0.436), P = (0.096) respectively.

This result was unexpected regarding nurses at University Hospital especially the previous result revealed Hospital had statistically significant higher mean total job design score than nurses at MOH Hospital (P=0.013), according to Knapp and Mujtaba, (2010) job design increases an employee’s satisfaction, motivation, and Productivity [34]. So, this result could be attributed to the fact that, job satisfaction is a personal evaluation of conditions present in the job, or outcomes that arise as a result of having a job. Cook, Hepworth, Wall & War, (1981) explain this comparison further by stating that employees seek to achieve and maintain correspondence with their environment. Correspondence with the environment can be described in terms of the individual fulfilling the requirements of the environment, and the environment fulfilling the requirements of the individual[ 35]. This means that employees will experience job satisfaction if they feel that their individual capacities, experience, and values can be utilized in their work environment and that the work environment offers them opportunities and rewards.

Job satisfaction thus has to do with an individual’s perceptions and evaluation of his job, and this perception is influenced by the person’s unique circumstances such as needs, values, and expectations. employees will, therefore, evaluate their jobs on the basis of factors which they regard as being important to them Employees who are satisfied with their jobs are likely to be better ambassadors for the organization and show more organizational commitment [36].

On the other hand, the study’s result congruent with Hussain and Saleem ( 2014) who stated that Job satisfaction is the attitude rather than the behavior, mostly strong communications, relationship, and strong linkage may lead to employees’ satisfaction [30]. Consequently, If the particular feeling is positive, then the employee is satisfied with the organization. If the particular feeling is not positive, then he/she can be dissatisfied from his/her job. Most of the times, it depends on the situations that employees are satisfied or not.
Conclusion
The aim of this current study is to investigate the relationship between job design and job satisfaction among nurses working in two different healthcare sectors. According to the findings of this study, when nurses are satisfied with their jobs, have a good job design and are involved in their job, they show a positive attitude about their jobs.

Based on the findings the study recommends that managers should understand the importance of job design as an essential component of work behavior among the workforce. Nurses should be encouraged to be self-motivated which help increase their satisfaction. Nurse leaders must optimize nurses’ opportunities for personal and professional growth by creating a learning environment that enables reflective practice and shared accountability, demonstrate confidence in others by delegating effectively, coach, mentor, and guide, provide both negative and positive feedback constructively and provide opportunities for the development of knowledge, skills, and judgment which increase job satisfaction
In Summary
Job design has major effects on job satisfaction: either positive or negative. Organizations are paying a lot of attention lately to employees’ job satisfaction as it became a major part in achieving organizations’ goals. In Saudi Arabia, shortage of nurses is a huge issue. Turnovers that result from the absence of job satisfaction increase the shortage of nurses thus negatively affecting health organizations. In an attempt to solve this issue, researches have been done to highlight the relationship between job design and job satisfaction. This study aims to investigate the existence of this relationship. The findings of the study revealed that there is a weak relationship between job design and job satisfaction. Nurses at University Hospital had a statistically significant higher mean total job design score than nurses at MOH. Nurses at MOH Hospital had statistically significant higher mean total satisfaction score than nurses at University Hospital. The majority of the nurses at both hospitals had low satisfaction and weak positive relationship between job design and job satisfaction.
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