Proximate Analysis and Determination of Some
Selected Vitamins and Minerals Contents of
Terminalia catappa Endocarp Flour
Philemon C Anuforo1*, Ngozi K Achi1, Anthony Cemaluk C Egbuonu1 and Elizabeth U Egu2
1Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria
2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia Abia State, Nigeria
Philemon C Anuforo, Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria,
Tel: +23480-3526-0857; E-mail:
Received: August 18, 2017; Accepted: September 04, 2017; Published: October 24, 2017
AnuforoPC, Ngozi KA, Egbuonu ACC, Egu EU (2017) Proximate Analysis and Determination of Some Selected
Vitamins and Minerals Contents of Terminalia catappa
Endocarp Flour. J Nutrition Health Food Sci 5(5):1-4. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15226/jnhfs.2017.001109
This study was designed to determine the proximate, minerals,
vitamins content of milled Terminalia catappa endocarp flour as
possible source of nutrients. The analyses were done using standard
methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1990).
The result of the proximate composition showed the following;
moisture (5.00 ± 0.28 g/100g), ash content (11.03 ± 0.25 g/100g),
crude protein (8.28 ± 0.35 g/100g), crude fat (8.53 ± 0.18 g/100g),
crude fibre (36.33 ± 0.18 g/100g) and carbohydrate (30.85 ± 0.71
g/100g). The mineral contents;calcium (220.19 ± 0.19 mg/100g),
magnesium (43.66 ± 0.06 mg/100g), phosphorus (41.87 ± 0.99
mg/100g), potassium (326.32 ± 0.18 mg/100g), sodium (16.75 ±
0.13 mg/100g). It also contained vitamin A (6.45 ± 0.00 mg/100g),
vitamin B2 – riboflavin (0.09 ± 0.01 mg/100g), vitamin B1 – thiamine
(0.345 ± 0.10 mg/100g), vitamin B3 – niacin (2.52 ± 0.09 mg/100g)
and vitamin C – ascorbic acid (14.58 ± 0.09 mg/100g). Terminalia catappa wastes can be sources of nutrients, mineral elements and vital
vitamins that were nutritionally important for body health. Therefore,
proper exploration of these waste will result in proper tropical
almond wastes utilization and help in solid waste management (waste
reduction), thereby resulting environmental sustainability.
Keywords: Terminalia catappa; Proximate Analysis; Mineral
Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the family
combretaceae that is native to the tropical regions of Asia, Africa
and Australia, known for its nutritional fruit and possession of
medicinal benefits. It is a tall, semi-deciduous, erect, medium to
large sized tree 10 to 25 m tall. It is found in almost all the regions
of the country as it thrives well in the tropics, hence its name
tropical almond. It has a single stem which grows to a height of
about 10 m and then branches horizontally with leaves at the end
of the branches that form a rosette [1, 2]. The fruit is a sessile,
laterally compressed, oval-shaped drupe. This drupe is 2.5 inches
long and mature from green to yellow or red during the summer.
The outside husk is corky fiber with an inner thin green flesh.
The inside holds the edible, almond-like kernel . Fruit colour
changes from green in young to dark purplish red at full maturity.
Rind of the fruit is light, pithy or corky tissue and float in the sea
and thus dispersed by ocean currents. Each fruit contains a creamcoloured
seed, which encloses the kernel (nut). The fruit endocarp
(pod) which is considered to be of little or no significance is often
discarded as waste after the fruit is being harvested, thereby
constituting a menace to the environment. It is a contributor of
municipal waste . However, studies have revealed that they
are good sources of important nutrients, supplying the body with
minerals salts, vitamins and certain hormone precursors, protein,
energy and essential amino acid [5, 6]. The leaves and fruit of
Terminalia catappa are astringent. The leaves act as a vermifuge
(especially the red leaves), serve as analgesic, as well as, used to
treat yaws while the kernel of the fruit when mixed with beeswax
stops putrid exudation and bloody faeces . The bark and root
bark are useful for bilious fever, diarrhoea, thrush, remedy for
sores and abscesses and recommended as a mild laxative and a
galactagogue for women, but too frequent use causes diarrhea
. The flesh and kernel of the fruits are eaten raw, sun dried or
roasted. The leaves, roots and bark are however used for treating
diseases such as anemia, hypertension, malaria, fever and asthma,
the leaves have been shown to protect against acute liver injury
produced by some hepato-toxicants . The kernel can be eaten
raw or roasted and has an almond-like taste. Sun-dried kernels
yield 34-54% of bland, yellow, semi-drying oil that is edible but
becomes turbid on standing . The oil is mainly used in cooking.
The flesh of the fruit is also edible but is often fibrous and not
very tasty in spite of the pleasant smell. The kernel is also rich in
lipids; a viable source of extractable edible oil used for cooking
while the foliage is used as a feed for silkworms and other animal
feed and provides a source for timber, gum or resin and tannin or
dyestuff . The major aim of this study seeks to investigate the
nutritional value of Terminalia catappa endocarp flour.
Materials and Methods
Plant materials and authentication
Fruits of Terminalia catappa were harvested from College
of Pure and Applied Sciences (COLPAS) of Michael Okpara
University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, during
the morning hours between 1st and 4th week of June, 2015. The
plant was identified and authenticated by Mr. K. Ibe of Forestry
and Environmental Management, College of Natural Resources
and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of
Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
Preparation of plant materials
The fresh fruits of Terminalia catappa
were washed, peeled
(to remove the edible ectocarp), air dried at a temperature of
35°C (to remove excess moisture), deshelled and the resultant
shell (endocarp) milled. The ethanol extract of endocarp flour
was prepared by soaking 250g of Terminalia catappa
flour in 1
litre of ethanol for 72 hours at room temperature with vigorous
shaking. The mixture was filtered with Whatman filter paper
No.1. The filtrate was then dried at a temperature of about 40°C
in oven and stored in refrigerator in a capped beaker at 4°C for
further use and percentage yield was calculated using:
Percentage yield =
= Weight of semi-solid aqueous extract
= Weight of the Terminalia catappa
flour before extraction
Determination of proximate composition of Terminalia catappa
The Association of Official Analytical Chemist procedure was
used to determine the proximate compositions .
Determination of some vitamins
Determination of some of the vitamins contents were carried
out according to the method described by while ascorbic acid was
determined by the method described by [11,12].
Determination of some minerals
The mineral content of the sample was determined by the dry
ash acid extraction method described by . A measured weight
of the sample (2g) was burnt to ashes (as in ash determination)
in a muffle furnace at 550°C. The resulting ash was dissolved in
10mLs of 2M HCl solution and diluted to 90mL of distilled water
in a volumetric flask and filtered. The filtrate was used on the
Proximate composition of Terminalia catappa
Results of the proximate compositions of the Terminalia catappa endocarp (pod) are presented in (Table 1). As shown
in Table I, the highest proximate content was crude fibre (36.33
± 0.18g/100g), followed by carbohydrate (30.85 ± 0.71g/100g)
while the least was moisture (5.00 ± 0.28g/100g) followed by
crude protein (8.28 ± 0.35g/100g).
Table 1:Proximate composition of Terminalia catappa endocarp flour
5.00 ± 0.28
11.03 ± 0.25
36.33 ± 0.18
8.53 ± 0.18
8.28 ± 0.35
Values are means ± standard deviations of triplicate determinations
Vitamin compositions of Terminalia catappa endocarp
Results of the vitamins compositions of Terminalia catappa
endocarp flour are presented in (Table 2). As shown in Table
2, the highest vitamin composition was ascorbic acid (14.58 ±
0.09mg/100g) followed by retinol (6.45 ± 0.00mg/100g) while
the least was riboflavin (0.09 ± 0.01mg/100g).
Table 2:Vitamin compositions of Terminalia catappa endocarp flour
0.345 ± 0.10
0.09 ± 0.01
2.52 ± 0.09
6.45 ± 0.00
Ascorbic Acid (C)
14.58 ± 0.09
Values are means ± standard deviations of triplicate
Mineral compositions of Terminalia catappa endocarp
The Terminalia catappa endocarp flour contain relatively
high amount of important mineral (Table 3). Results showed
that the potassium concentration (336.32 ± 0.18mg/100g) was
the highest, followed in descending order by calcium (220.19 ±
0.19 mg/100g), magnesium (43.66±0.06mg/100g), phosphorus
(41.87 ± 0.99 mg/100g) and sodium (16.75 ± 0.13 mg/100g).
Table 3:Mineral composition of Terminalia catappa endocarp flour
220.19 ± 0.19
43.66 ± 0.06
16.75 ± 0.13
326.32 ± 0.18
41.87 ± 0.99
Values are means ± standard deviations of triplicate determinations
From the result, the endocarp flour had high carbohydrate
content which was higher compared to the values reported
for Terminalia catappa leaves implying that almond endocarp
flour could serve as a good source for carbohydrate [13,14].
Carbohydrates are easily digested and provide the necessary
calories in the diets of humans.
The crude fiber content reported for almond endocarp in this
study was very high compared to those reported for Terminalia catappa, suggesting that Terminalia catappa endocarp could
serve as a good dietary fiber source [15,13]. Dietary fiber can
lower cholesterol level, risk of coronary disease, hypertension,
constipation, diabetes, colon and breast cancer . Fiber
improves food bulk, appetite satisfaction and the movement
of food through the digestive system, as well as, prevents
constipation [17,18].The consumption of diets rich in plant
foods (and therefore fiber) is inversely related to the incidence of
cardiovascular disease, colon cancer, and diabetes. One plausible
mechanism for an anti carcinogenic effect is the rapid passage
of the digestive mass through the colon, thereby reducing the
possibility that potential carcinogens have an opportunity to
interact with the mucosal surface .
The moisture content was very low compared to 31.05 ±
0.04 obtained for the red variety kernel as reported by Oduro
et al. This low moisture content of Terminalia catappa endocarp
could increase its storage time. Generally, high moisture content
enhances the growth of microorganisms and hence microbial
spoilage of food. The moisture content reported in the present
study for Terminalia catappa endocarp flour was similar
compared to 5.5% and 5.1% for cashew nut and african oil bean
The ash content of Terminalia catappa endocarp flour was
high compared to 5% reported for Terminalia catappa seed and
2.76 ± 0.11% reported for the red variety seed of Terminalia catappa [22,13]. Ash content signifies the level of mineral present
in the sample.
The crude protein content of Terminalia catappa endocarp
flour was low compared to 36.69% reported for Terminalia catappa seed, but higher than 0.65% reported for Terminalia catappa nut [13, 23].However, 23.78 ± 0.15% was reported for the
same Terminalia catappa seeds/nut . The 8.23 ± 0.35g/100g
reported for crude protein represents 24.43% of the dietary
allowance for protein for a 70kg man . Protein could be used
as a dietary supplement for people who need a lot of protein, and
most importantly for those who require plant protein e.g. people
suffering from hypertension. It can also be incorporated into
animal feed to increase the protein content.
Minerals and vitamins compositions
The potassium concentration in almond endocarp was high
compared to 350.00mg/100g reported for Terminalia catappa
. The dietary allowance for potassium is 2000mg for adults
The Terminalia catappa flour potassium content was 336.32
± 0.18mg/100g which contributed about 17.0% of the RDA.
Therefore, Terminalia catappa flour could be recommended as
source of dietary supplement for potassium. Potassium is an
essential nutrient and has an important role in the synthesis of
amino acids and proteins .
Calcium content in almond flour was 220.19 ± 0.19 mg/100g.
This value is high when compared to 36.1mg/100g obtained
for Terminalia catappa, but low when compared to 827.20 ±
2.18mg/100g reported for Terminalia catappa nut [13,15]. The
magnesium content was 43.66 ± 0.06mg/100g in the endocarp
flour. This value was low compared to 798.60 ± 0.32 mg/100g
reported for almond nut . Calcium and magnesium play a
significant role in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism,
nucleic acids and binding agents of cell walls . Calcium assists
in teeth and bone development . However, its presence in high
concentration may be a risk factor for hypertensive patients since
it results in calcification of the arteriole walls. Magnesium is an
essential mineral for enzyme activity. Like calcium and chloride,
magnesium also plays role in regulating the acid-alkaline balance
in the body. High magnesium levels in drinking water have been
linked to resistance to heart disease .
The phosphorus content of Terminalia catappa
(41.87±0.99mg/100g) obtained for almond endocarp flour was
higher compared to 10.00mg/100g obtained for Terminalia catappa . However, was low when compared to 4000mg/100g
obtained for Benin seeds . The dietary allowance for
phosphorous was 800mg/100g, hence, 41.87±0.99mg/100g
contributed about 5.23% of the RDA, implying that Terminalia catappa endocarp flour could not serve as a rich source of
phosphorus as supplements .
The vitamin A and C content are adequate to supplement
other dietary sources. Vitamin A is a good treatment for people
suffering from eye problem while deficiency of vitamin C leads
to scurvy and gingivitis. The vitamin A and C concentrations
obtained for Terminalia catappa endocarp were high compared
to the 0.710μg/g and 0.030μg/g reported respectively .
The proximate, mineral and vitamin screening of Terminalia catappa endocarp revealed that it can be good sources of nutrients,
mineral elements and vital vitamins that were nutritionally
important for body health. Although, the endocarp of Terminalia catappa is often regarded as waste, nutritionally, they compare
favorably with most popularly consumed vegetables based on
their moisture content, ash content, crude lipid, crude fiber,
crude protein and carbohydrate. Therefore, proper exploration
of these wastes will result in wastes utilization thereby resulting
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