Peer- Review is the process by which the manuscript written by an author is reviewed by his/her peers (intellectuals from a field similar to that of the author) before being accepted for publication in a journal.
Peer-Reviewed Journals adopt this method to ensure that each manuscript is submitted to a rigorous process of quality check for content, scientific facts, experimental data, grammar and composition, before publication and public access of the manuscript.
The Editor-in-Chief or the editorial board of a journal assigns the manuscript to those reviewers who have comparable or greater technical expertise/years of experience/education as compared to the author of the manuscript.
Peer review process establishes the authenticity of the manuscript by providing critical feedback and suggestion to the authors for improving the standards of their manuscript.
The fate of a manuscript is dependent on its peer review. A manuscript can be accepted for publication, accepted after few corrections/modifications or rejected based on the scientific /technical content of the manuscript.
Reputed international journals have made peer-review process mandatory to avoid publishing articles with factual errors, forged experimental data, unethical research, inconclusive and erroneous results. Peer-review process must be stringent to avoid infamy for the journal, as has happened in the most recent Nature-stem cell research controversy.